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A study on the role of language intensity in a corpus of Dutch-English online hotel reviews.

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Evaluations in online reviews written in different languages
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  Evaluations in online reviews written in different languages  A study on the role of language intensity in a corpus of Dutch-English online hotel reviews.  Nele Gehling s4119533Milou Jansen s4239407Intercultural Research EnglishE.B. e Groot ! Grou" 3 Ra#ou $ni%ersit& Ni'(egen 1  Introduction )nline re%ie*s are in%alua#le to an& sel+,res"ecting co("an& or institute. -he& o not onl& allo* an organiation to +ollo* custo(er e/"eriences *ith its ser%ices or "roucts #ut also ena#le the organiation to tae ti(el& an targete (easures *hen its re"utation is at stae. s a result o+ consu(er,generate content share on online #ran co((unities #logs an co("arison sites organiations no longer ha%e +ull control o%er their i(age an re"utation. -oa& consu(ers largel& eter(ine an organiations re"utation.Research sho*s that co("arison sites an electronic custo(er re%ie*s e/ert a signi+icant i("act on consu(er #eha%ior Bonner  6ille(sen 2012. 6hile +or centuries traitional *or,o+,(outh has #een (ost in+luential in regulating consu(ers o"inions an "urchase  #eha%ior Nielsen 2009 clai(s that electronic *or,o+,(outh e6)M is a close secon in in+luential "o*er. Inee so(e scholars argue that e6)M o++ers aitional a%antages that cannot #e "ro%ie #& traitional 6)M. 8ue to the s"ee ease o+ use i((eiate an *ie accessi#ilit& o+ e6)M an ue to the a#sence o+ +ace,to,+ace co((unication the a%antageso+ e6)M (a& *ell out*eigh those o+ traitional 6)M eso%ec a(ic  :u(er(an 2007.;onse<uentl& it is crucial +or an organiation to closel& (onitor its re"utation in e6)M. =houl its re"utation #e negati%e an the organiation is a*are o+ this it can still tr& to e("lo& ae<uate *e# care or other re(eial actions. Not sur"risingl& se%eral so+t*are  "rogra(s so,calle #usiness intelligence tools ha%e no* #een e%elo"e that ena#le an organiation to (anage its re"utation online. ""l&ing senti(ent anal&sis or o"inion (ining these so+t*are "rogra(s auto(aticall& collect the ata that are rele%ant +or (a""ing the co("an& i(age >ang  ee 200?. =enti(ent anal&sis e/a(ines the *a& language users%er#all& e/"ress their +eelings an o"inions. In "articular senti(ent anal&sis +ocuses on the use o+ e%aluati%e language an on the %alence o+ the e%aluati%e language use i.e. "ositi%e or negati%e. =o+t*are "rogra(s a""l&ing senti(ent anal&ses to ate ha%e #een #ase on English ata e/clusi%el&. In +act in case these so+t*are "rogra(s alrea& allo* +or the "rocessing o+ ata in other languages the& onl& o"erate #ase on an auto(atic translation (oule that is 2  co("ara#le to Google -ranslate or Ba#el+ish. ccoringl& intercultural i++erences in the %alence an *oring o+ e%aluations are not at all accounte +or in the so+t*are "rogra(s c+. =hanahan Gre+enstette @u an E%ans 2004 an 8enee 200? #ut also see =chul 6o(ser,:acer an Manl 2010 +or a i++erent a""roach. Aurther(ore the (a'orit& o+ the so+t*are "rogra(s inclue %er& li(ite lists o+ e%aluati%e *ors *ith a set o+ no (ore than 50 ite(s ranging +ro( #a goo e/cellent (agni+icent etc. 6hen these *ors occur in a re%ie* the "rogra( e/tra"olates that the re(aining te/t in the re%ie* is (are #& the sa(e %alence or "olarit& >ang ee  Caith&anathan 2002. >ut i++erentl& onl& the *ors that clearl& articulate an o"inion in English *ill #e translate into another language an #ase on that translation conclusions *ill #e ra*n *ith regar to the +ull e%aluation re"resente in the te/t. -hus the "rogra( oes not tae into consieration the istincti%e *ors conce"ts inter"retations an "erce"tions that (a& signi+icantl& in+luence the %er#al e/"ressions in an e++ects o+ a i++erent language in a i++erent culture. It see(s that this t&"e o+ research co("letel& ignores the <uestion o+ *hether cultural i++erences (a& cause i++erent ieas a#out ho* to %er#all& e/"ress an inter"ret e%aluations. -he "resent stu& *ill aress this research ga"D it *ill #e the +irst stu& to in%estigate *hether the e%aluation o+ a gi%en ser%ice in one language anor cultural area is co("ara#le to an e%aluation o+ the sa(e ser%ice in another languageculture. More s"eci+icall& it *ill e/a(ine *hether language intensit& in relation to "olarit& has the sa(e iscursi%e +unction across English *ithin e%aluati%e hotel re%ie*s on the -ri"a%isor.co(.co( *e#site. s such this stu& sees to contri#ute to the e%elo"(ent o+ (ultilingual o"inion (ining so+t*are. Its results *ill lea to the +or(ulation o+ guielines that are i("ortant *hen using this t&"e o+ so+t*are +or (ulti"le language "airs hereF NE -hese guielines *ill re<uire the a""lication o+ algorith(s that account +or the t&"ical i++erences #et*een languageculture "airs. In other *ors is the 8utch "hrase #est een "ri(a hotellet'e reall& co("ara#le to Google -ranslates English translation <uite a goo little hotel In 8utch #est is the su"erlati%e o+ goo #ut *hen use as an a%er# it has a (itigating (eaning i.e. as a hege. -he sa(e hols +or "ri(a *hich in collo<uial language use re+ers to (eanings such as goe te oen )H an %alt (ee not too #a rather than e/cellent. lso the i(inuti%e in hotel,let'e has a "ositi%e connotation an oes not onl& escri#e the sie o+ the hotel. In short these *ors re<uire user inter"retations that e%iate +ro( the (eanings suggeste in ictionaries or  #& their +ace %alue. -hrough co(#ining se%eral (itigating ele(ents the 8utch te/t "roucer  3  thus a""ears to <uali+& the gi%en hotel as (eiocre or al(ost satis+actor&. 6ors that loo liesu"erlati%es (oreo%er actuall& see( to contri#ute to a (oerate re%ie* o+ the hotel. et this nee not al*a&s #e the case. Man& 8utch "eo"le "re+er to use unerstate(ents in their e%aluationsF the& e/"ress their "ositi%e 'ug(ents #& (eans o+ (itigating *ors. =uch t&"icaluse o+ language can #e regare as a characteristic o+ the 8utch culture. Not #a *oul #e the highest "ossi#le co("li(ent in this culture n so the "hrase #est een "ri(a hotellet'e coul *ell (ean that the 8utch *riter is actuall& reall& enthusiastic a#out the gi%en hotel.In short si("l& aing the ictionar& (eaning o+ ini%iual *ors use in an e%aluati%e re%ie* ! i.e. as current so+t*are "rogra(s ten to o ! "oses se%eral ra*#acs. Airst *or (eaning or %alue can onl& #e eter(ine in,conte/t an secon through the cultural inter"retation o+ this conte/t. ;learl& it is unliel& that co("uter "rogra(s *ill #e a#le to recognie the su#tleties in language use an translate the( in a si("le algorith( that onl& (a"s *ors *ith "ositi%e an negati%e %alence. n i+ the (a""ing o+ these su#tleties +or a single 8utch re%ie* is i++icult alrea& then certainl& it *ill also #e i++icult +or re%ie*s in the other languages. anguage an culture o not nee to coincie. )n the contrar& English is s"oen #& a larger nu(#er o+ non,nati%e than nati%e s"eaers an not all nati%e s"eaers srcinate in the British or (erican culture. =ince :o+stee 2001 culture has #een e+ine as the collecti%e  "rogra((ing o+ the (in share a(ong (e(#ers o+ a "articular grou". 8ra*ing on this e+inition it is "lausi#le that the collecti%e "rogra((ing o+ the (in o+ 8utch "eo"le e%iates +ro( the collecti%e "rogra((ing o+ the (in o+ Belgians or Ger(ans or ="aniars or ;anaians see ;laes an Gerritsen 2012. -his cultural istincti%eness is liel& to #e re+lecte in the *a& "eo"le co((unicate. Most "ro#a#l& i++erences in cultural nor(s an %alues are also re+lecte in the *a& e%aluations are %er#all& e/"resse. Gi%en the i++erences :o+stee 2001 an -ro("enaars an :a("en,-urner 1997 in "articular +oun #et*een the 8utch an British cultures it can #e h&"othesie that the *oring an "erce"tions o+ e%aluations *ill also %ar& across these cultures. Gu&unst an -ingtoo(e& 19?? *ere the +irst to tr& to relate a grou"s %er#al st&le to the grou"s cultural i(ensions as outline in the *or o+ :o+stee 19?1D 2001 an :all 1972e.g. ini%iualis(collecti%is( or conte/t sensiti%it&. Gu&unst an -ingtoo(e& 19?? 4   "oint out that 6esterners +or instance "re+er a irect an o"en co((unication st&le *hereas sians lie an inirect an o"a<ue st&le #etter. Moreo%er 6esterners ha%e #een o#ser%e to  #e (ore ini%iualistic than sians. ccoringl& Gu&unst an -ingtoo(e& 19?? inicate that a "re+erence +or a irect co((unication st&le is consistent *ith a "re+erence +or an ini%iualistic cultural orientation. lthough the authors o not (ae e/"licit clai(s a#out causalit& the& o suggest that i+ a culture is characterie #& "re+erences +or s"eci+ic nor(s an %alues it also +eatures a corres"oning "re+erence +or a s"eci+ic %er#al st&le. In line *ith their suggestion the authors relate +our i++erent %er#al st&les inirectirectD succinctela#orateD instru(entala++ecti%eD "ersonalconte/tual to the %arious cultural i(ensions o+ :o+stee 19?1D 2001 an :all 1972. :o*e%er the& o not "ro%ie irect e("irical e%ience +or the relationshi" #et*een %er#al st&le an cultural orientation. ;onsiering the co("le/it& o+ the genre o+ the "rouct re%ie* *hich assu(es that the *riter %er#all& e/"resses hisher "ersonal 'ug(ent o+ a "rouct or ser%ice an *hich is "u#licl& rea an consulte it (a& not #e eas& to connect this te/t t&"e to the %er#al st&les that ha%e  #een istinguishe #& Gu&unst an -ingtoo(e& 19??. Because hotel re%ie*s ai( to +or(ulate 'ug(ents an "ri(aril& entail e%aluations the language the& inclue can #e e+ine as e%aluati%e. Cer#al st&les that are t&"ical +or e%aluati%e language use are not co%ere in Gu&unst an -ingtoo(e& 19??s *or. In +act the& i("l& that %er#al st&les are t&"ical o+ the general use o+ language in a "articular culture regarless o+ *hether o#'ecti%e or su#'ecti%e language use is concerne. =i(ilar to Gu&unst an -ingtoo(e& 19?? Johnson Hulesa lc ;ho en =ha%itt 2005 argue that there is a relationshi" #et*een res"onse st&le an :o+stees i(ensions 19?1D2001. Research has "ro%en that so(e sur%e& "artici"ants ha%e a stronger tenenc& than others to select the e/tre(es o+ an ans*er scale. -his is also no*n as the e/tre(e res"onse st&le. Johnson et al. 2005 sho* that it is "ossi#le to correlate a "re+erence +or the e/tre(e res"onse st&le *ith high scores on :o+stees 2001 i(ensions o+ (asculinit& an  "o*er istance. -he (ore a "erson tens to rel& on the e/tre(es o+ a scale the greater the chance that heshe re"resents a culture that is highl& (asculine an in +a%or o+ high "o*er istance. Naturall& the *a& "eo"le res"on in a sur%e& an the "re+erence the& ha%e +or scale e/tre(es is not ientical to an acti%e res"onse st&le or the st&le "eo"le a""l& *hen *riting a hotel re%ie*. Ne%ertheless it can #e e/"ecte #ase on Johnson et al. 2005 that cultures characterie #& high scores on the "o*er istance an (asculinit& i(ensions *ill also use 5
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