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A Survival Guide to Punctuation

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A Survival Guide to Punctuation I should define punctuation as being governed two-thirds by rule and one-third by personal taste. G.V. Carey Mind the Stop Punctuation can be a tricky subject. British usage differs from American usage, rules keep changing, or so it seems, and inconsistencies abound. Matters are not helped by the fact that each publishing company and newspaper has its own way of punctuating, known as a house style, that may differ in certain respects from those used in other publi
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  N Qxuzbznf Lxbch s` ]xoasxnsb`o B qi`xfc chjboh }xoasxnsb`o nq ehbol l`zhuohc s|`'sibucq er uxfh noc `oh'sibuc er }huq`onf snqsh/ L/Z/ Anuhr Gboc sihQs`}   ]xoasxnsb`o ano eh n subadr qxekhas/ Eubsbqi xqnlh cbjjhuq ju`gNghubano xqnlh& uxfhq dhh} ainolbol& `u q` bs qhhgq& nocboa`oqbqshoabhq ne`xoc/ Gnsshuq nuh o`s ihf}hc er sih jnas sins hnai}xefbqibol a`g}nor noc oh|q}n}hu inq bsq `|o |nr `j }xoasxnsbol&do`|o nq n i`xqh qsrfh& sins gnr cbjjhu bo ahusnbo uhq}hasq ju`g si`qhxqhc bo `sihu }xefbqibol i`xqhq/ J`u hyng}fh& q`gh dhh} a`ggnq s` ngbobgxg& jhhfbol sins s`` gnor a`ggnq af`l x} n qhoshoah4 `sihuqjhhf sins sihr ihf} s` boauhnqh sih afnubsr `j n qhoshoah/Bo jnas& sihuh nuh `ofr n jh| }xoasxnsb`o qbloq sins lbzh }u`efhgq& noc`ofr n qgnff oxgehu `j enqba uxfhq sins hzhur`oh qi`xfc do`|/ ]h`}fh|i` ano xochuqsnoc sih uxfhq gnr euhnd sihg& bj sih ohhc nubqhq4si`qh |i` anoo`s& gnr o`s/ N}`qsu`}ih  Sih n}`qsu`}ih inq s|` gnbo xqhq;>/S` bocbansh }`qqhqqb`o]xs sih n}`qsu`}ih ehj`uh sih q bo sih qbolxfnu& njshu bs bo sih }fxunf/Qbolxfnu]fxunf Sih e`r,q }b{{nSih e`rq, }b{{n Bj n |`uc ainolhq j`ug bo sih }fxunf noc c`hq o`s hoc bo q )h/l/ gno 'gho & suhns bs nq bj bs |huh qbolxfnu noc }fnah no n}`qsu`}ih ehj`uh sih q ;Qbolxfnu]fxunf Sih gno,q aib}qSih gho,q aib}q Onghq& boafxcbol si`qh hocbol bo q & sndh no n}`qsu`}ih noc q; Knghq,q }b{{nFrooh Suxqq,q e``d Rhnsq,q }`hsur  A`onff Ingbff Qs Nocuh|,q A`ffhlh >  I`|hzhu& onghq ju`g afnqqbanf nosb~xbsr shoc o`s s` sndh sih q;    Yhuyhq, }b{{n Naibffhq, aib}q Ohbsihu c`hq sih ongh  Khqxq |iho bs uhjhuq s` sih }huq`o auxabjbhc ersih U`gnoq;  Khqxq, cbqab}fhq  I`|hzhu& bj r`x |huh uhjhuubol s` Khqxq& r`xu Q}nobqi }ho }nf& r`xqi`xfc }u`enefr |ubsh;  Khqxq,q }nhffn 5/S` bocbansh `gbqqb`o\iho r`x cu`} n fhsshu& r`x xqh no n}`qsu`}ih s` sndh bsq }fnah; Bs,q )bs bq n luhns }b{{n/ B c`o,s )c` o`s fbdh zbohlnu `o aib}q/ O/E/ Sih j`ff`|bol j`ugq nuh a`uuhas; Sih c`l |nllhc bsq snbf… o` n}`qsu`}ih Bo sih Buhfnoc `j sih >25=q… o` n}`qsu`}ih Ih e`xlis q`gh CZCq noc ACq… o` n}`qsu`}ih Ihuh nuh q`gh c`q noc c`o,sq…`oh n}`qsu`}ih `ofr A`ggn  Sih a`ggn inq ns fhnqs jbzh gnbo xqhq;>/A`ggnq nuh xqhc s` qh}nunsh bshgq bo n fbqs/ B fbdh }b{{n& aib}q& qnxqnlhq noc q}nlihssb/ Bo Eubsbqi xqnlh sihuh shocq o`s s` eh n a`ggn ehj`uh sih jbonf noc  /Nghubano xqnlh lhohunffr uh~xbuhq bs/ 5/ A`ggnq nuh xqhc s` k`bo s|` a`g}fhsh qhoshoahq xqbol nfsi`xli&noc  & exs& `u& |ibfh noc  rhs  |ihuh r`x jhhf n }nxqh bq n}}u`}ubnsh s`hg}inqbqh sih qh}nunshohqq `j sih bchnq/ B fbdh }b{{n& exs B f`zh aib}q/ Exs Ih qns c`|o noc nsh ibq }b{{n/ 1/A`ggnq ano jbff ln}q |ihuh n |`uc `u }iunqh inq ehho cu`}}hc/ ]h`}fh |i` ano xochuqsnoc sih uxfhq gnr euhnd sihg& bj sih ohhc nubqhq4 si`qh |i` anoo`s& gnr o`s/ A`onff Ingbff Qs Nocuh|,q A`ffhlh 5  Ihuh& sih jbonf a`ggn uh}fnahq xochuqsnoc sih uxfhq /3/A`ggnq bosu`cxah cbuhas q}hhai/ Ih qnbc& ,B f`zh }b{{n/, 8/ A`ggnq jungh }nuhosihsbanf )hysun boj`ugnsb`o/ ]b{{nq noc aib}q& e`si `j |ibai B fbdh& nuh jnsshobol/ Qhgb'a`f`o  Sih qhgb'a`f`o anxqhq g`uh ihnc'qaunsaibol sino nor `sihu}xoasxnsb`o gnud/ Frooh Suxqq& bo Hnsq& Qi``sq noc Fhnzhq & nssubexshqbsq n}}hnunoah bo g`chuo }xoasxnsb`o s` Nfcxq Gnoxsbxq sih Hfchu& nZhohsbno }uboshu& noc }huj`ugq sih uhgnudnefh jhns `j cnsbol bsq jbuqsn}}hnunoah s` >323 bo n shys hosbsfhc Ch Nhson / Eb{nuuhfr& bs bq xqhc bonoabhos Luhhd s` qhuzh nq n ~xhqsb`o gnud/ Bs bq inuc s` jboc nluhhghos`o nff sih }`qqbefh xqhq afnbghc j`u bs/ ]nxf U`eboq`o& bo ibq hqqnr Sih]ibf`q`}ir `j ]xoasxnsb`o & afnbgq sins ,g`uh sino infj `j sihqhgba`f`oq `oh qhhq…qi`xfc eh }hub`cq& noc }u`enefr no`sihu ~xnushuqi`xfc eh a`ggnq,& noc ju`|oq `o bsq xqh/ U`ehus Obai`fq& no hcbs`u&cbqnluhhq;B anoo`s l` nf`ol |bsi ibq cbqgbqqnf `j sih qhgba`f`o& `oh`j sih lf`ubhq `j sih |ubssho |`ufc& noc ' a`osunur s` |insih qnrq ' znqsfr xochuxqhc/B ng o`s nf`oh/ ’Sihuh nuh si`qh |i` inzh n }uhkxcbahnlnboqs sih qhgba`f`o4 }huq`onffr B jboc bs n zhur xqhjxfqs`}‒ ' sixq q}hndq L`uc`o Zhu` Anuhr& sih nxsi`u `j ’Gbocsih Qs`}‒ )>212 & n qgnff exs bg}uhqqbzhfr fxabc e``d `o}xoasxnsb`o/ Anuhr‒q `|o |`ucq }u`zh ibq anqh/ Bo sihqhoshoah B inzh kxqs ~x`shc& ih xqhq n qhgba`f`o njshu’qhgba`f`o‒& noc bs bq inuc s` qhh i`| sih qhoshoah a`xfc|`ud nq |hff |bsi`xs bs/ N a`ggn |`xfc eh kxqs }fnbo |u`ol|bsi`xs n a`'`ucbonsbol a`okxoasb`o& sih }uhqhoah `j |ibai|`xfc inzh xochugbohc sih g`unf s`xliohqq `j sihqhoshoah/ Noc s` euhnd sih qhoshoah bo s|` |`xfc }u`cxahno xonssunasbzh khudbohqq/    Sih qhgb'a`f`o qhhgq s` inzh j`xu gnbo xqhq;>/S` auhnsh n qhoqh `j enfnoah ehs|hho s|` }iunqhq/ \iho nolur& a`xos j`xu4 |iho zhur nolur& q|hnu/ )Gnud S|nbo A`onff Ingbff Qs Nocuh|,q A`ffhlh 1   N Subobsr A`ffhlh gno ihuh shffq gh sih Bubqi c`o‒s qnr   Khqxq 4 exs ihbq sih q`o `j n qai``fgnqshu/ )I/F/Ghoadho Sih blo`unos& sih uhehffb`xq noc sih cnubol a`gh j`u|nuc |bsi sihbu eubffbnos enuenubqgq4 sih fhnuohc noc a`oqhuznsbzh eubol x} sihbu `ekhasb`oq/ )I/F/Ghoadho 5/  S` k`bo s|` a`g}fhsh qhoshoahq o`s fbodhc er noc  & `u  & exs  & |ibfh `u  rhs  / B fbdh }b{{n4 B neq`fxshfr f`zh aib}q/ 1/S` k`bo s|` bchnq sins nuh a`oohashc f`lbanffr/ Sih }b{{n |nq ho`ug`xq4 B si`xlis B,c ohzhu jbobqi bs/ 3/ Ehj`uh i`|hzhu  & ohzhusihfhqq noc a`oqh~xhosfr  bo n qhoshoah/ Sih }b{{n |nq l``c4 i`|hzhu& sih aib}q |huh }hujhas/ A`f`o  Sih a`f`o inq j`xu gnbo xqhq/>/S` bosu`cxah no hy}fnons`ur qsnshghos/ @j a`xuqh B f`zh }b{{n; B,g Bsnfbno/ 5/S` bosu`cxah n fbqs/ B fbdh sih j`ff`|bol; }b{{n& aib}q& qnxqnlhq noc eu`aa`fb/ 1/S` }u`cxah sih bg}uhqqb`o `j n cungnsba }nxqh ehj`uh nonoo`xoahghos/ B f`zhc ihu j`u sibq uhnq`o ne`zh nff; qih gnch luhns }b{{n/ 3/S` qhs `jj n f`ol ~x`snsb`o )g`uh sino ne`xs j`usr |`ucq `j }u`qhnoc g`uh sino s|` fbohq `j zhuqh ; Bo Nas BBB& Ingfhs& inzbol nfuhncr nfhushc sih nxcbhoah s` ibqch}uhqqb`o& a`oshg}fnshq qxbabch;S` eh& `u o`s s` eh; sins bq sih ~xhq'sb`o;\ihsihu ,sbq o`efhu bo sih gboc s` qxjjhu Sih qfbolq noc nuu`|q `j `xsunlh`xq j`usxoh&@u s` sndh nugq nlnboqs n qhn `j su`xefhq… ^x`snsb`o gnudq )Bozhushc a`ggnq  Sih naah}shc Eubsbqi }unasbah ns sih g`ghos bq s` xqh qbolfh ~x`snsb`ognudq |iho ~x`sbol ju`g n shys `u |iho ~x`sbol cbuhas q}hhai; A`onff Ingbff Qs Nocuh|,q A`ffhlh 3
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