General

A Training Tool for Internet Crimes Against Children Cases

Description
A Training Tool for Internet Crimes Against Children Cases
Categories
Published
of 14
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  Chapter25 A TR INING TOOL FORINT RN T CRIMES  G INST CHILDRENCASES S.Aggarwal, B. Breeden,P.Henryand J. Mulholland Abstract TheInternethasgreatlyincreased the vulnerabilityofchildrentothosewhowouldcommitcrimesagainstthem.InresponsetoInternetCrimesAgainstChildren( CAC)legislation,lawenforcementagencieshavededicatedresourcestoeducate the publicof the threat,respondtoongoingattacks,andassistvictims.Asignificanttrendin the investigationofICACcasesistheproactivemasqueradingoflawenforcementagentsasvulnerablepreyinInternetforums.Thisapproachhasshowngreatpromise,andagentswhohavemastereditpossessvaluableknowledgeandskills that couldassistothers. The PredatorandPreyAlert(PAPA)system,ahardwareandsoftwaresuiteoftools,originallydevelopedforproactiveshadowing,assistanceanddirectmanipulationofacyberstalkingvictim'scomputer,showspotentialasaproactiveforensictoolforICACinvestigations.ThispaperdiscussestheuseofPAPAasanetworkedapplicationtotrainlawenforcementagentstoinvestigateonlinecasesinvolving the exploitationofchildrenandteenagers. Keywords: Proactiveinvestigations,investigatortraining,InternetCrimesAgainstChildren( CAC)cases 1.Introd uction TheInternethasgreatlyincreasedthefree flow ofinformation,overcomingmanyoftheobstacles,e.g.,culture,distanceandtime, that havekeptpeopleapart.Connectivityhasbecomeatwo-edgedsword,especiallyforthemostvulnerableinsociety [9J. Increasingnumbersofchildrenaregoingonlinetolearn,playandcommunicatewiththeirfriends [9J .Inthepast,childpredatorspursuedchildreninpublicplaces;nowtheyprowlonlineforums(chatrooms,peer-to-peerfilesharingnetworksandgamingsites)lookingforprey.TheOfficeforVictimsofCrimereports that teens,whoarerebellingfromparentalauthorityor Please/lsethefollowingformatwhencitingthischapter: Aggarwal.S..Breeden. 8.. Henry.P..Mulholland. J.. 2006inInternationalFederationforInformationProcessing.Voume222.AdvancesinDigitalForensicsIl,eds.Olivier, M.. Shenoi,S.,(Boston:Springer).pp.317-330.  318 ADVANCES IN DIGITALFORENSICSII dealingwithissuesofsexualidentity,areespeciallysusceptibletosolicitationsbyInternetpredators [3] .InternetCrimesAgainstChildren(ICAC)includediverseoffenses:attemptedandconsummatedsexualassaults,illegaluseoftheInternettotransmitsexualmaterial,directsolicitationofminors,and the production,possessionanddistributionofchildpornography.ICACcrimeshaveseveraldistinctivefeatures [15] :•Physicalcontactbetweenthechildandtheperpetratorneednottakeplaceforvictimizationtooccur.•Repeated,long-termvictimizationmayoccurwithoutthevictim'sknowledge.Forexample,sexuallyexplicitphotographsofchildren,onceinthehandsofchildpornographers,oftenremainincirculationontheInternetindefinitely.•Internetcrimestranscendjurisdictionalboundaries.•Accordingrecentstudies [3 j 4],childrenmaynotrealize that theyhavebeenvictimized.Eveniftheydo,theyarenotlikelytodisclosewhathappened.Wolak, etal. [16J note that ICACcasesfallintothreecategories:(i)identifiedvictims, (ii) undercoveroperationsinwhichnochildvictimsareinvolved,and  iii childpornography.OnlyafractionofICACincidentsarereportedtotheauthorities,e.g.,lawenforcement,Internetserviceproviders,parentsorchildren'shotlines [3J .AsMedarisandGirouard [9] observe, theInternetisanearlyperfect medium foroffendersseekingchildrenforsex.Itprovidesprivacy,anonymityandavirtuallyunlimitedpoolofunsupervisedchildrenandteenagerswhomaybesusceptibletomanipulation. Nevertheless,asMitchell, etal. [10] aptlypointout, thissameanonymityisanadvantagetolawenforcementbecauseitallowsa40year-oldinvestigatortogoonlineposingasa14-year-oldgirl.Thispermitslawenforcementtobeproactiveininvestigationsinwaystheypreviouslycouldnot,anditallowsthemtodetectsomeoffendersbeforetheyvictimizeanactualchild. Theglobalreachandanonymityprovidedbytheemergenceofcollaborativeapplicationson the InternethaveincreasedthescaleandscopeofICACcases [5]. PedophilescurrentlyusetheInternetto:•Establishinstantworldwideaccesstopotentialchildvictimsorotherpredators.•Discusstheirsexualdesiresopenly.•Shareideasaboutwaystolurevictims.  Agga1 U.Jal etal •Providemutualsupportoftheiradult-childsexphilosophies.•Assumedisguisedidentitiesforapproachingchildren. 319 •Participatein teenchatrooms tofindouthowandwhomtotargetaspotentialvictims.•Identifyandtrackdownhomecontactinformation.•Buildlong-termvirtualrelationshipswithpotentialvictims [9]. BecauseofthevastnumberofInternetusers,pedophileseasilyfindvictims,andbecauseofthecross-jurisdictionalrangeoftheInternet'sreach,offendersfacelittleriskofinterdiction.AU.S.DepartmentofJustice(DoJ)report [15] notes that theInternetisbeingusedbypredatorstocontactchildren and/or teenagersforthepurposeofengagingtheminsexualacts.TheInternetisalsousedtoproduce,manufactureanddistributechildpornography.Youngpeopleareconstantlybeingencouragedtoengageinandexchangepornography.AccordingtoMedarisandGirouard [9],  [pjornography isusedtobreakdowninhibitionsandvalidatesexbetweenchildrenandadultsasnormal,anditenablestheoffendertohavepoweroverthevictimthroughoutthemolestation.When the offenderlosesinterest,picturesofthevictimareoftenusedasblackmailtoensurethechild'ssilence,andwhenthesepicturesarepostedontheInternet,theybecomeanenduringandirretrievablerecordof the victimizationandarelentless,shame-inducingviolationof that child'sprivacy. Also,theInternetisbeingusedtoenticeandexploitchildrenwithrespecttosexualtourism,l.e., travel-with theintenttoengageinsexual behavior-that isusedeitherforcommercialgainorpersonalgratification.Thistypeofoffenderisnotonlywillingtoinvestconsiderabletimeandefforttobefriendanddisarmachild,heiswillingtocrossjurisdictionalboundaries.AccordingtoaDoJreport [3J perpetratorstravelhundredsofmilestodifferentstatesandcountriestoengageinsexualactswithchildrentheymetover the Internet.Manyofthesecasesinvolvelocal,state,federalandinternationallawenforcemententitiesinmultiplejurisdictions. Casesdealingwiththeexploitationofchildrenforunlawfulpurposeshavebeensteadilyincreasing [14], butthe resourcesneededtoinvestigatethesecaseshavenotkeptpacebecausetheinvestigationofICACcasesplacessubstantialburdenonlocallawenforcement.Wolak, etal [ ] observe [s]ince the mid-1990s..,developingtechnologieshaveforcedlawenforcementtoconfrontsituationsnotanticipatedincriminalstatutes,mastertechnicaladvances,developnewinvestigativetechniques,and  320 ADVANCESINDIGITALFORENSICS II handlecriminalcases that oftenspanmultiplejurisdictions. AccordingtoMitchell, et  t [1O} ICACare widespread,occurringthroughout the criminaljusticesystem;theyaremulti-jurisdictional [and} sorequireextensivecollaboration;theyinvolveconstantlychangingtechnology;andtheyrequirespecializedinvestigationmethods. 2. Proactive Investigations Inresponsetothegrowingchallengesofonlinecrime,lawenforcementhasdeployedinnovativetechniquestocombatICACperpetrators.Foremostamongtheseareproactiveinvestigations that involvelawenforcementagentsposingasminors,lurkinginchatrooms,andwaitingtobecontactedbyoffendersseekingunderagevictims [7} .Lawenforcementagentsatalllevelsareconductingproactiveinvestigationsforseveralreasons,includingincreasedpublicsafety,relativelylowcostandadministrativeease,andthepotentialtostoporapprehendcriminalsbeforetheycanharminnocentpersons [15]. Although the agentsposeasentitiesother than themselves,thisactivityisnotconsideredentrapmentifagentswaitforsuspectstomakeclearstatementsdemonstratingapredispositiontocommitacrime [14]. Nominorsareinvolvedinthesetypesofcases, but becauseoftheanonymityofonlineforums,suspectsbelievetheyarecommunicatingwithminors.Assuch, the casesarereferredtoas proactive becausetheyallowlawenforcementtoactwithoutwaitingforanoffendertocommitacrimeagainstajuvenilevictim.AccordingtoMitchell, et  t [lOJ, proactivecasesrepresent25%ofallarrestsforInternetsexcrimesagainstminors.Despitetheadvantagesofproactiveinvestigations,giventhelargenumberoflawenforcementagencies,manywithlimitedswornofficers,itremainsasignificanttemporalandmonetaryburdentotrainanddeployagentsintheseinvestigations.Forlawenforcementtoeffectivelytrack,arrestandgatherevidenceofICACincidents,theymustbewell-versedincomputersand the Internet,theonlinesocialbehaviorofyoungpeopleandsuspects,andrelevantinvestigativetechniques [2J .ICACcasesand the agencies that respondtothemrequirefinancialresourcestoacquire,maintainandupgradeequipment,maintainstaffwithexpertiseincomputertechnology,providetraininginspecializedinvestigationmethods,andpromoteinterjurisdictional cooperation-all whiletechnologyandcriminaltechniquesarebecomingincreasinglysophisticated.Ideally,ICACinvestigationscanstopcrimesinprogress;findingssuggest that theInternetmayallowlawenforcementtoactbeforeayouthisvictimized,gathersolidevidenceofoffenses,andtrackoffenders [2J .Mitchell, etal. [1O} sug-   ggarwal et ol 321gest that offendersarrestedinundercoverinvestigationsposesignificantriskstoyoungpeople:in13%ofundercoverinvestigations,offenderswerefoundtobeconcurrentlycommittingsimilarcrimeswithjuvenilevictimsleadingtotheidentificationofmolestedyouth.In41%ofundercoverinvestigations,offenderspossessedchildpornography,revealingadditionalcriminalconduct [7] .Thetrackrecordsofarisgood:proactiveprosecutionofICACcaseshasproducedhighratesofguiltypleasandlowratesofdismissedanddroppedcases. 3.U sing P P asaTraining Tool SeverallawenforcementagencieshavedevelopedfacilitiesforICACinvestigationsandmanyagentshavegainedinvaluableexperienceinproactivetechniques.InthefaceofthewidespreadICACthreat,itisdesirable that theyleveragetheirexperienceandexpertisetofightthisgrowingcategoryofcrime.Weargue that thePredatorandPreyAlert(PAPA)system [1], atooldevelopedforcyberstalkingcases,iswellsuitedforICACcases.ThecorePAPAsystemisasetofintegratedtoolsoriginallydesignedtosupportagenciesinhelpingvictimsofcyberstalking,facilitatingtheinvestigationofsuchcrimes,andcollecting,verifyingandmaintainingevidenceforthesubsequentprosecutionofcyberstalkers.NotonlycanPAPAbeadaptedtoproactiveandreactiveinvestigations, but itcanalsobedeployedasanin-houseordistributedtrainingtool that canbeusedbyexpertagentstooverseeandinstructinexperiencedagentsduringongoinginvestigations.PAPAwasdesignedwiththefollowinggoalsinmind:•Permitagenciestoremotely shadow avictimandprovideassuranceandadvicewhenneeded.•Captureandlogcircumstantial data relatedtostalkingactivitiesso that ananalystcansubsequentlyinvestigateanddeterminetheidentityofthepredator.•Captureevidenceofprobativevalueso that thesuspectcanbesuccessfullyprosecuted.ThePAPAarchitectureisillustratedinFigure 1.   isassumed that theexpertagenthasaprimarycommunicationchannelwiththepredatorviatheInternetwhereheorsheisworkingacasefromhome(thisisstandardpracticeinICACcases) [3]. Eachtimetheinvestigatingagentengageswiththepredator,sayinanonlinegameorinachatroom,asessionisestablished.Asessionusedforevidentiarypurposesbegins
Search
Similar documents
View more...
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks