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A viral system algorithm to optimize the car dispatching in elevator group control systems of tall buildings

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A viral system algorithm to optimize the car dispatching in elevator group control systems of tall buildings
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  A viral system algorithm to optimize the car dispatching in elevator group control systems of tall buildings Pablo Cortés 1* , Luis Onieva 2 , Jesús Muñuzuri 3 , José Guadix    University of Seville, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería, Ingeniería Organización Camino de los escu!rimientos s"n, Sevilla #$%&', Spain Email( $  pca)esi*us*es ,  +-#&.##/0$.-12 ' onieva)esi*us*es 2 - munuzuri)esi*us*es 2 # guadi3)esi*us*es  * Corresponding aut4or    Abstract.-  !o"ada#s is ver# $o%%on t&e 'resen$e o( tall buildin)s in t&e business $entres o( t&e %ain $ities o( t&e "orld +u$& buildin)s reuire t&e installation o( nu%erous li(ts t&at are $oordinated and %ana)ed under a uniue $ontrol s#ste% Po'ulation "or-in) in t&e buildin)s (ollo"s a si%ilar tra((i$ 'attern )eneratin) situations o( tra((i$ $on)estion .&e 'roble% arises "&en a 'assen)er %a-es a &all $all "is&in) to travel to anot&er (loor o( t&e buildin) .&e dis'at$&in) o( t&e %ost suitable $ar is t&e o'ti%ization 'roble% "e are ta$-lin) in t&is 'a'er /e develo' a viral s#ste% al)orit&% "&i$& is based on a bio0ins'ired virus in(e$tion analo)# to deal "it& it .&e viral s#ste% al)orit&% is $o%'ared to )eneti$ al)orit&%s, and tabu sear$& a''roa$&es t&at &ave 'roven e((i$ien$# in t&e verti$al trans'ortation literature .&e ex'eri%ents underta-en in tall buildin)s (ro% 1 to 2 (loors, and several $ar $on(i)urations (ro% 2 to  $ars, 'rovide valuable results and s&o" &o" viral s#ste% out'er(or%s su$& so(t $o%'utin) al)orit&%s Keywords:  levator4 li(t4 viral s#ste%4 bio0ins'ired al)orit&%s4 elevator )rou' $ontrol s#ste%4 verti$al trans'ortation Acknowledgments .&e aut&ors a$-no"led)e t&e (inan$ial su''ort 'rovided b# t&e +'anis& Plan (or 5esear$& and 6evelo'%ent .e$&nolo)# and 7nnovation Plan t&rou)& its Pro)ra%%e 7ndustrial Produ$tion and 6esi)n, 'ro8e$t 5e( 6P721019392  A viral system algorithm to optimize the car dispatching in elevator group control systems of tall buildings Abstract.-  !o"ada#s is ver# $o%%on t&e 'resen$e o( tall buildin)s in t&e business $entres o( t&e %ain $ities o( t&e "orld +u$& buildin)s reuire t&e installation o( nu%erous li(ts t&at are $oordinated and %ana)ed under a uniue $ontrol s#ste% Po'ulation "or-in) in t&e buildin)s (ollo"s a si%ilar tra((i$ 'attern )eneratin) situations o( tra((i$ $on)estion .&e 'roble% arises "&en a 'assen)er %a-es a &all $all "is&in) to travel to anot&er (loor o( t&e buildin) .&e dis'at$&in) o( t&e %ost suitable $ar is t&e o'ti%ization 'roble% "e are ta$-lin) in t&is 'a'er /e develo' a viral s#ste% al)orit&% "&i$& is based on a bio0ins'ired virus in(e$tion analo)# to deal "it& it .&e viral s#ste% al)orit&% is $o%'ared to )eneti$ al)orit&%s, and tabu sear$& a''roa$&es t&at &ave 'roven e((i$ien$# in t&e verti$al trans'ortation literature .&e ex'eri%ents underta-en in tall buildin)s (ro% 1 to 2 (loors, and several $ar $on(i)urations (ro% 2 to  $ars, 'rovide valuable results and s&o" &o" viral s#ste% out'er(or%s su$& so(t $o%'utin) al)orit&%s Keywords:  levator4 li(t4 viral s#ste%4 bio0ins'ired al)orit&%s4 elevator )rou' $ontrol s#ste%4 verti$al trans'ortation 1. Introduction .rans'ortation is a $lassi$ dis$i'line "it& a lon) tradition in t&e industrial en)ineerin) resear$& :see (or exa%'le ;ie and Jia, 2124 <an et al 2124 <in and =i%, 2124 =es&avarz and =&orra%, 2114 or Muñuzuri et al 21 a%on)st ot&ers as re$ent $ontributions> ? 'arti$ular $ase o( trans'ortation is verti$al trans'ortation "&i$& $onsiders t&e verti$al trans'ortation o( 'assen)ers or (rei)&t in a buildin) t&rou)& its (loors 7n (a$t, in t&e late #ears, t&e ra'id )ro"t& o( t&e buildin) industr# and asso$iated te$&nolo)ies &as been de%andin) 'arallel )ro"t& in t&e (ield o( verti$al trans'ortation .&e 'ro)ressive 'ri$e in$rease in t&e urban $entres o( t&e lar)er $ities %a-es t&e ne$essar# intensive )round ex'loitation b# %eans o( t&e $onstru$tion o( tall buildin)s :see (i)ure 1 de'i$tin) an i%a)e o( t&e Man&attan business $entre> .o %ana)e "it& t&e verti$al trans'ortation s#ste% o( su$& buildin)s, t&e installation o( s#n$&ronized elevator )rou's in is a usual 'ra$ti$e igure 1.  ? lands$a'e o( t&e u''er Man&attan s-#s$ra'ers (ro% t&e %'ire +tate @uildin)  .&e %ain ob8e$tive o( an o'ti%al elevator )rou' $ontrol s#ste% :GC+> is to 'rovide a )ood ualit# o( servi$e to its 'assen)ers :see C7@+ Guide, 29> .&e 'roble% ta$-led b# ever# GC+ is to solve t&e assi)n%ent 'ro$ess o( a $ar o( t&e elevator )rou' to a &all $all %ade b# a 'assen)er "antin) to travel (ro% a (loor to ot&er di((erent (loor in t&e buildin) /&en a 'assen)er 'resses a landin) $all button o( t&e 'anel in t&e &all, &eAs&e ex'e$ts t&at a $ar o( t&e GC+ "ill arrive in a (e" se$onds .&is assi)n%ent 'ro$ess %ust be done anal#sin) t&e di((erent o'tions and sele$tin) t&e %ost suitable $ar to serve t&e 'erson &avin) issued t&e $all .&is assi)n%ent %ust be done o'ti%izin) t&e "aitin) ti%es t&at t&e 'assen)er "ill ex'eri%ent .&e %ost $o%%on o'ti%ization $riterion :Cortés et al, 2> (or ualit# o( servi$e in elevator )rou' $ontrollers is t&e redu$tion o( t&e avera)e 8ourne# ti%e :?J.> "&i$& $onsists o( t&e "aitin) ti%e ueuin) in t&e &all :avera)e "aitin) ti%e, ?/.> 'lus t&e travel ti%e to destination inside t&e $ar :avera)e travel ti%e, ?..> .&e avera)e "aitin) ti%e :?/.> is t&e a$tual ti%e a 'ros'e$tive 'assen)er "aits a(ter re)isterin) a &all $all :or enterin) t&e "aitin) ueue i( a $all &as alread# been re)istered> until t&e res'ondin) elevator doors be)in to o'en Bollo"in) t&e C7@+ Guide, (or $ar loads less t&an 9, ?/. $an be a''roxi%ated b# :1>, "&ile (or $ar loads over 9, it is a''roxi%ated b# :2>  INT . AWT  40 = , (or $ar loads D 9  :1>  INT CC P AWT   −+= 2 77.08.14.0 , (or $ar loads E 9  :2> /&ere I5T   is t&e interval :t&e %ain (loor arrival avera)e ti%e>, 6  is t&e nu%ber o( 'assen)ers, and CC   is t&e rated $ar $a'a$it# .&e avera)e travel ti%e :?..> is t&e ti%e t&e res'ondin) elevator doors be)in to o'en to t&e ti%e t&e doors be)in to o'en a)ain at t&e 'assen)ersF destination Bollo"in) t&e C7@+ Guide a)ain, it is $al$ulated as :3> Pt S t )S ( S  H t  ATT   psv  ⋅ ++++= 2112  :3> /&ere 7  is t&e &i)&est reversal (loor, S  t&e ex'e$ted nu%ber o( sto's, t  v   t&e sin)le (loor transit ti%e :in se$onds>, t  S  t&e sto''in) ti%e :in se$onds>, t  6  t&e 'assen)er trans(er ti%e :in se$onds>, and 8  t&e nu%ber o( $ars "it&in t&e elevator )rou' .&ere(ore, t&e 'roble% t&at an GC+ %ust ta$-le $onsists o( t&e allo$ation o( a $ar o( t&e )rou' to a &all $all %ade b# a 'assen)er based on a $riterion su$& as t&e ?J., and it is a !P0ard 'roble% t&at 'resents n 9   'ossible $o%binations (or n  (loors and 9   li(ts, and t&ere(ore it is an extre%e $o%'utational $o%'lexit# 'roble% 7n t&e re$ent #ears, resear$& on GC+ (or verti$al trans'ortation in buildin)s is )ainin) a $onsiderable interest (ro% t&e s$ienti(i$ $o%%unit# ?lt&ou)& %at&e%ati$al a''roa$&es &ave been so%eti%es $onsidered :see H&an) et al, 214 Mulvane# et al, 214 or It)o(( and Connell, 212>, advan$ed a''roa$&es in$ludin) so(t $o%'utin) or arti(i$ial intelli)en$e al)orit&%s are 'revailin) to 'rovide o'ti%al $ar0$all allo$ation (or GC+ in no"ada#s 7n t&is line, )eneti$ al)orit&%s &ave been "idel# used 'rovidin) )ood and valuable results sin$e a lon) ti%e :Bu8ino et al, 1K4 Cortés et al, 24 .#ni and <linen, 2> and resear$& $ontinues bein) underta-en in t&is (ield :irasa"a et al, 24 @olat et al, 21> ?lso, ot&er so(t $o%'utin) te$&niues su$& as 'arti$le s"ar% o'ti%ization &ave been also a''lied :Li et al, 2K>, as "ell as i%%une s#ste%s al)orit&%s :Li et al, 2K> .abu sear$& &as attra$ted less  attention t&an )eneti$ al)orit&%s, alt&ou)& re$entl# t"o al)orit&%s based on deter%inisti$ and 'robabilisti$ a''roa$&es &ave been 'resented to deal "it& t&e 'roble% :@olat et al, 211> Lastl#, $ontrol s#ste%s based on (uzz# lo)i$ are bein) ent&usiasti$all# tried re$entl# :Ja%aludin et al, 214 5as&id et al, 2114 or Cortés et al, 212> too 5e$entl#, viral s#ste%s "&i$& are a novel bio0ins'ired te$&niue &as been introdu$ed in t&e literature devoted to a''lied bio0ins'ired al)orit&%s :Cortés et al, 2> 'rovidin) su$$ess(ul a''li$ations to t&e +teiner 'roble% in net"or-s :Cortés et al, 21>, -na'sa$- 'roble% :+ur#adi and =arti-a, 211>, ve&i$le routin) 'roble% :Pérez0Martnez et al, 211>, or s$&edulin) 'roble%s :Cortés et al, 212> 7t is interestin) to note t&at an a''li$ation o( t&e biolo)i$al virus $on$e't "as develo'ed b# =ubota et al :1> as a )eneti$ o'erator o( a )eneti$ al)orit&% a''lied to a sel(0or)anizin) %anu(a$turin) s#ste% ere, "e &ave a''lied t&is novel te$&niue to deal "it& t&e o'ti%ization o( t&e &all $all0$ar allo$ation s#ste% o( t&e GC+ Bollo"in) t&e %et&od, $ells are de(ined as t&e (easible solutions t&at are en$oded (ollo"in) t&e Cortés et al :2> strate)# t&at &as been "idel# a$$e'ted b# t&e verti$al trans'ortation s$ienti(i$ $o%%unit# 7n addition, "e (ollo" t&e @olat et al :211> %et&odolo)# to %a-e a ui$- evaluation o( t&e $ell (itness .&e re%ainin) o( t&e 'a'er deals "it& t&e 'resentation o( t&e 'roble% and t&e ada'tation o( t&e viral s#ste% al)orit&% to solve t&e $ar0$all allo$ation o'ti%ization in GC+, "&i$& is s&o"n in se$tion 2 .&en in se$tion 3, ex'eri%ental results are 'rovided (or tall buildin)s (ro% 1 to 2 (loors, and several $ar $on(i)urations (ro% 2 to  $ars Binall#, t&e %ain $on$lusions are dra"n in t&e (inal se$tion !. "he viral system approach to optimize the elevator group control system .&e elevator )rou' $ontrol s#ste% o( a buildin) in$ludes a set o( %i$ro$&i's in $ontrollers to deter%ine "&i$& $ar o( t&e )rou' s&ould serve ea$& &all $all /&en 'assen)ers arrive to t&e &all o( t&e buildin) and 'ress an u' or do"n button t&e GC+ %ust assi)n a $ar o( t&e )rou' to su$& $all Passen)ers arrive to a buildin) (ollo"in) s'e$i(i$ tra((i$ 'atterns Bour %ain 'atterns are traditionall# $atalo)ued :see C7@+ Guide, 29 and @en%a-&lou( and =&ator(or, 13 a%on)st ot&ers> Bi)ure 2 s&o"s usual 'atterns in an o((i$e buildin) I''ea- tra((i$ $&ara$terizes a lar)er t&an avera)e nu%ber o( u' landin) $alls4 it t#'i$all# a''ears "&en "or-ers arrive to t&e buildin) in t&e earl# %ornin) to start t&eir "or-in) da# 6o"n'ea- tra((i$ $&ara$terizes a lar)er t&an avera)e nu%ber o( do"n landin) $alls4 it ta-es 'la$e "&en t&e "or-ers leave t&e buildin) to )o ba$- &o%e ? lun$&'ea- tra((i$ 'attern ta-es 'la$e in t&e %iddle o( t&e da#, and it is due to t&e a''earan$e o( u' and do"n 'ea-s4 it a''ears usuall# (or lun$&in) at %idda# Binall# inter(loor tra((i$ $orres'onds to t&e rest o( t&e da#4 t&is 'attern is $&ara$terized (or a lo" de%and :usuall# around a  o( t&e 'o'ulation> in bot& dire$tions    igure !.  .ra((i$ 'attern in an o((i$e buildin)   .&is se$tion 'resents an al)orit&% t&at assi)ns t&e %ost suitable $ar to a &all $all %ade b# a 'assen)er arrivin) to t&e &all o( a buildin) .&e next subse$tions s&o" t&e solution en$odin) :$ell )eno%e in ter%s o( t&e viral s#ste%>4 t&e evaluation o( t&e solution :t&at is, t&e (itness evaluation o( su$& )eno%e "&en in(e$ted b# a virus>4 and t&e details o( t&e viral s#ste% i%'le%entation 2.1. Cell genome definition .&e 'ossible solutions (or t&e allo$ation o( a &all $all to a $ar are en$oded a$$ordin) to binar# arra# :see Cortés et al, 2 (or a (irst 'ro'osal> +o, one arra# is asso$iated to ea$& $ar in t&e elevator )rou', and is de(ined b# re'resentin) t&e u' and do"n $alls at ea$& (loor t&at are assi)ned to t&is s'e$i(i$ $ar +o t&e len)t& o( ea$& arra# is eual to 2N:!u%bero(Bloors01> +o, t&e (irst !u%bero(Bloors01 inte)ers $orres'ond to t&e &all $alls in t&e u'"ard dire$tion (ro% t&e )round (loor to t&e &i)&est (loor .&e se$ond !u%bero(Bloors01 inte)ers $orres'ond to t&e &all $alls in t&e do"n"ard dire$tion (ro% t&e &i)&est (loor to t&e )round (loor Bi)ure 3 de'i$ts t&e solution en$odin) .&e arra# &olds t&e in(or%ation re(errin) to t&e &all $alls b# %eans o( a binar# $odi(i$ation ? bit  indi$ates no &all $all at t&at (loor, and a bit 1 indi$ates an existin) &all $all at t&at (loor igure #.  +olution en$odin) (or a t"elve stor# buildin) $orres'ondin) to one $ar o( t&e )rou' and its asso$iated '&#si$al button box   2.2. Evaluation of the cell fitness a$& 'ossible $ar0&all $all allo$ation :$ell> is evaluated (ollo"in) t&e %et&odolo)# des$ribed in @olat et al :211>, "&i$& &as been 'roved to be an eas#0to0i%'le%ent and (ast0to0$o%'ute te$&niue Moving up trafficMoving down traffic uppeakdownpeaklunchpeaklunchpeak TimeTraffic volumeTraffic volume
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