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A Written Report on Ferdinand Edralin Marcos

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History 1 ON FERDINAND EDRALIN MARCOS A Written Report ANTHONY RATERTA CARMINA REBLE GIL MICHAEL REGALADO Early Life Ferdinand E. Marcos was born on September 11, 1917 in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte. His parents, Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin, were both teachers. From 1923 to 1929, he attended the Sarrat Central School, Shamrock Elementary School in Laoag and the Ermita Elementary School in Manila. He finished high school and liberal arts course at the University of the Philippines. While still
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  History 1 ON FERDINAND EDRALIN MARCOS A Written ReportANTHONY RATERTACARMINA REBLEGIL MICHAEL REGALADOEarly Life  Ferdinand E. Marcos was born on September 11, 1917 in Sarrat, Ilocos Norte. Hisparents, Mariano Marcos and Josefa Edralin, were both teachers. From 1923 to1929, he attended the Sarrat Central School, Shamrock Elementary School in Laoagand the Ermita Elementary School in Manila. He finished high school and liberal artscourse at the University of the Philippines. While still a student, he wascommissioned as third lieutenant (apprentice officer) in the Philippine ConstabularyReserve after having been an ROTC battalion commander.In 1935, Assemblyman Julio Nalundasan, a political rival of his father, was shotdead. Suspicion for the crime fell on the Marcoses. Ferdinand Marcos, who wasarrested on a charge of conspiracy to murder, was tried, and found guilty in 1939.He argued his case on appeal to the Supreme Court, luckily winning an acquittal ayear later.In the summer of 1939 he received his bachelor’s degree, cum laude from the U.P.College of Law. He would have been a class valedictorian and magna cum laude hadhe not been imprisoned for the Nalundasan murder. The case prevented him fromattending several weeks of classes. He reviewed for the bar examinations while inprison. He bailed himself out in order to take the examination, where he emergedtopnotcher in November of the same year. He became trial lawyer in Manila. Andduring World War II, he served as an officer in the Armed Forces of the Philippines.Early Political CareerMarcos became senator after serving as member of the House of Representativesfor three terms. In the Senate he served as minority floor leader before gaining theSenate presidency. He established a record for having introduced a number of significant bills, many of which found their way into the republic's statute books.PresidencyFrom the start of Marcos’s presidency, escalating United States involvement in theVietnam War (1959-1975) made the U.S. military bases in the Philippines—Clark AirBase and Subic Bay Naval Base—critical staging areas for American forces.Consequently, the war funneled billions of dollars into the Philippine economy. Manypublic-works projects, financed by foreign loans, also helped the economy todevelop rapidly. In addition, Imelda Marcos launched a series of prestige projects inManila, including the building of museums and grand hotels.In 1969, after campaigning on the slogan “Rice and Roads,” Marcos was reelectedpresident with 74 percent of the vote. He was the first president of the Philippinesto win a second term, which was the most allowed under the country’s constitution. The races for both houses of the Philippine Congress also went highly in favor of Marcos’s supporters and his Nationalist Party.During his second term Marcos faced a host of domestic problems. Many universitystudents and other Filipinos actively opposed the continued U.S. military presencein the Philippines and Marcos’s support for U.S. policy in Vietnam. The CommunistParty of the Philippines also became more active, organizing widespread unrestamong the urban and rural poor. In the southern Philippine islands, a Muslim  separatist movement was building momentum. And as Marcos approached the endof his second term in office, it became increasingly clear that a constitutionalconvention charged with drafting a new, post independence constitution did notintend to abolish the two-term limit for the presidency. Thus, Marcos faced theprospect of having to leave office after 1973.Martial Law The convention never completed its work, however. Claiming anarchy was near,Marcos declared martial law in 1972, thereby suspending the 1935 constitution,dissolving Congress, and assuming total power. Marcos suppressed the politicalopposition, arresting leaders such as Benigno ('Ninoy') Aquino, Jr., and ended a longtradition of a free press. A new constitution promulgated in January 1973 gaveMarcos absolute power, and elections were indefinitely postponed. Marcos ruled bydecree, cloaking his dictatorial decisions in the rhetoric of law.In 1981 Marcos officially lifted martial law, but retained sweeping emergencypowers, in order to validate his power through a sham presidential election.Predictably, he won an easy victory and another term as president. Then his healthbegan to fail. He had a degenerative illness, lupus erythematosus, which led tokidney failure. He was on dialysis and had a kidney transplant. He seemed to bedying.Road to RevolutionIn 1983 Aquino decided to return to the Philippines, even though heanticipated being rearrested. Aquino was shot in the back of the head and killedminutes after his arrival at Manila International Airport (now Ninoy AquinoInternational Airport). The government claimed the assassination was the work of alone gunman, who had been killed by security police at the airport. A specialcommission subsequently concluded the murder was the result of a militaryconspiracy, but in 1985 a high court acquitted all of the officers charged with thecrime.By 1984, his close personal ally, U.S. President Ronald Reagan, starteddistancing himself from the Marcos regime that he and previous Americanpresidents had strongly supported even after Marcos declared martial law. TheUnited States, which had provided hundreds of millions of dollars in aid, was crucialin buttressing Marcos's rule over the years. During the Carter administration therelation with the U.S. soured somewhat when President Jimmy Carter targeted thePhilippines in his human rights campaign.In the face of escalating public discontent and under pressure from foreignallies, Marcos called a snap presidential election for 1986, with more than a year leftin his term. He selected Arturo Tolentino as his running mate. The opposition unitedbehind Aquino's widow, Corazon, and her running mate, Salvador Laurel.During the voting, American observers witnessed many irregularities.Afterward, the two monitoring bodies, one sponsored by a U.S.-based group and theother an official government commission, reported contradictory election results.  Both candidates claimed victory, but the national assembly recognized Marcos asthe winner. The Catholic Church in Manila issued a statement claiming the electionhad been “a fraud unparalleled in history.” Marcos’s claim of victory rang hollow.People Power MovementOn February 22 two of Marcos’s key military supporters publicly turned against him.Secretary of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile and Deputy Chief of Staff Fidel Ramosstaged a military mutiny, seizing two vital military installations in suburban Manila. This mutiny presented Marcos with an immediate challenge that his cousin GeneralFabian Ver, the armed forces chief of staff, wanted to meet with decisive force.Cardinal Sin, using Radio Veritas, summoned the Philippine people into the streetsto block General Ver’s tanks. Thousands of civilians flocked into the streets andformed a human barricade on Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA), the mainboulevard between the two military bases. Marcos’s troops lacked either thebrutality or the political will to attack unarmed civilians, and they were effectivelyimmobilized by the strong show of what Filipinos called “people power.”Despite these events, Marcos insisted on being inaugurated president in a privatebut purely symbolic ceremony on February 25. The next day the Marcoses and theirfamily and close associates fled the Philippines for Hawaii on two aircraft suppliedby the U.S. Air Force. Aquino became president.When the Marcoses left the Philippines, the country was burdened with $27 billion inexternal debt and was in a deep economic recession. In 1988 Marcos was indictedby a U.S. grand jury in New York on federal racketeering charges relating to hisyears in office. Before he could stand trial, however, Marcos died in Honolulu in1989. The Philippine government allowed Imelda Marcos to return to the Philippinesand place Marcos’s remains in a refrigerated crypt in his home province in 1991.SummaryFerdinand Marcos had the intellect, the leadership skills, and the opportunity to bethe greatest president of the Philippines in the 20th century. Instead, his impactwas ruinous for the economy, the society, and the political institutions of hiscountry. The lost opportunity of economic growth and social prosperity stunted anentire generation and left the Philippines far less competitive than many of itsneighbors in Southeast Asia, where economic growth during the same period wasspectacular.OpinionAlthough Marcos is recorded in History negatively by being one of mostcorrupt or having run the most corrupt government, there are still parts in Marcos’leadership that we the Filipino people should be thankful. His desires to improveand develop the Philippines, although overshadowed by his wrongdoings are still
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