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A-Z_of Verbs

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  1 | Page  Verbs As you know, every sentence has two parts, the subject and the predicate. The key word in the predicate is the verb. The verb tells what the subject of the sentence is, has, does, or feels.    Burt works  at the park.    He trims  the trees.    He loves  his job.    He paints  the benches. Most verbs are action verbs . Some action verbs refer to physical action  that can be seen by other people. Others refer to mental action that cannot be seen. Physical Action : The gardener feeds the ducks. Mental Action : She likes the migrating birds best. English has three kinds of Verbs: transitive, intransitive, and incomplete. 1. Transitive Verbs A verb is transitive when the action is carried across to a receiver: The farmer grows  potatoes. Elvis sang  ballads. The receiver  is called the direct object . It answers the question “ What? ” or “ Whom?  after the verb. Grows what? Potatoes. Sang what? Ballads. 2. Intransitive Verbs A verb is intransitive when the action stays with the verb. It is not carried across to a receiver: Corn grows. Elvis sang. Adding a prepositional phrase to modify the verb does not change the fact that the action remains with the subject: Corn grows in the fields. Elvis sang all over the world. Both transitive and intransitive verbs are action verbs. 3. Incomplete Verbs - There are three types of incomplete verbs: i. being verbs    –   also called   linking or copulative verbs  Am, is, are, was, where, to be, seem, become, taste, smell, sound, feel, appear, grow, look, remain, stay.  2 | Page  These verbs express a state of being. These verbs do not refer to action of any sort. They simply tell what the subject is.    Burt is   the gardener’s assistant.    He seems  afraid of the swans.    One swan looks  angry.    In fact, swans are  hungry. A verb that expresses a state of being often functions as a linking verb. A linking verb links, or connects, the subject with a noun or an adjective in the predicate that names or describes the subject.    Peanut  is a toad.      Peanut  is tiny . TIP:  Some of these verbs can also be used transitively. If in doubt, substitute a form of to be for the verb. If the sentence still makes sense, the verb is being used as a copulative/ Linking verb:    He feels  depressed. He is depressed .    The pigeons look comical. (The pigeons are comical)    The swan’s hiss sounds fierce.   (The swan’s hiss is fierce)   Some verbs can function as either linking verbs or action verbs. Linking Verbs Action Verbs The lily pond  smells stagnant.   The squirrel  smells its food . The gardener  felt  tired . She  felt the tree’s thick leaves . ii. auxiliary verbs  –  also called helping verbs be, have, shall, will, do, and may. He could have gone earlier. iii. semi-auxiliary verbs (Modals) can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must and ought, dare, need. You must not go. You dare not go. Modal Verbs [can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must and ought, dare, need.] Modals are auxiliary words  that provide additional  and specific meaning  to the main verb  of the sentence . They are used before ordinary verbs and express meanings  such as permission, possibility, certainty and necessity. Use of Modals Modals are placed between  the subject  and the main verb . Then main verb has to be in its base form.  3 | Page Egg. Mary could    play    the piano at school on Wednesday’s  Basic principles that have to be taken into account in case of modals  –   1.   Modals are not verbs.    This means they do not accept conjugation    They do not need other auxiliaries Egg  –  She can play  (correct) she can plays  (Wrong) Can she play? Will she can play  (Wrong) 2.   Modals carry complementary verbal meaning. Example  –  Are you visiting the Doctor? I don’t know. I think I should . 3.   Modal verbs do not take -s in the third person. Examples:    He can speak Chinese.    She should be here by 9:00. 4.   You use not to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past. Examples:    He should not be late.    They might not come to the party. 5.   Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses Examples:    He will can go with us. Not Correct    She musted study very hard. Not Correct   Verb Forms in English Forms Example Irregular Verbs Regular Verbs Go Speak Study Play Base Form V1 Go Speak Study Plays Third Person Form (V’s)  V2 Goes Speaks Studies Plays Past Form V3 Went Spoke Studied Played Past Participial Form V4 Gone Spoken Studied Played Gerund Form (Present simple) V5 Going Speaking Studying playing  4 | Page  Grammatical person in English Personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they) are grouped in one of 3 categories: Category First Person The category first person  refers to the speaker himself or a group that includes the speaker (i.e., I, me, we and us).  Second Person Second person refers to the speaker's audience (i.e., you). Third Person Third person refers to everybody else (e.g., he, him, she, her, it, they, them), including all other nouns (e.g., Craig, Germans, ant, mice).
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