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A1_KlepistoWood_Principles of Practice_compare and Contrast

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Effective practice 1 Running head: THEORIES OF EFFECTIVE PRACTICE Theories of Effective Practice Kimberly Lepisto-Wood Walden University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for (EDUC 8104-7) Instructor: Paul Pitre January 16, 2011 Effective practice 2 ABSTRACT In this paper, the reader will see the comparison and contrast of two theorists on their theories of effective learning practices. Knowles and Brookfield have each separately proposed varied theories in an attempt to form an ef
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  Effective practice 1Running head: THEORIES OF EFFECTIVE PRACTICETheories of Effective PracticeKimberly Lepisto-WoodWalden UniversityIn partial fulfillment of the requirements for  (EDUC 8104-7) Instructor: Paul PitreJanuary 16, 2011  Effective practice 2ABSTRACTIn this paper, the reader will see the comparison and contrast of two theorists on their theories of effective learning practices. Knowles and Brookfield have each separately proposed variedtheories in an attempt to form an effective learning process for adults. Their principles aredifferent, but they also bear some similarities. Borrowing from their concepts of effectivelearning, this paper will explain and describe some of their theories and make comparisons anddifferences.  Effective practice 3Theories of Effective PracticeDifferent theorists attempt to expound on the principles of effective learning processes,especially regarding adult learning. In particular, Knowles and Brookfield have each separately proposed varied theories in an attempt to form an effective learning process for adults. Their  principles are different, but they also bear some similarities. Borrowing from their concepts of effective learning, this paper aims at elucidating on some of the contents of their theories andmaking comparisons and differences.Brookfield (1986) views adult learners as self-driven, and, as such, they choose to jointhe learning process without coercion. Consequently, they ought to receive respect from their facilitators, which is a shift from the conventional one-way pedagogy, where students are mererecipients of information from the teachers (Brookfield, 1986).Furthermore, Brookfield states that the teacher should assume the role of a facilitator rather than the sole giver of information; whether it is based on lecture or serving as the onlyresource to the student. Hence, the class becomes an interactive and collaborative arena in whicheffective learning can happen. The facilitator occupies the center of the learning process,enhancing reflective and analytical learning through different activities. Indeed, Brookfieldasserts that when a teacher facilitates rather than lectures, the learners are empowered in additionto becoming self-driven (Galbraith, 2004).On the other hand, Knowles (1984) presents a different set of principles viewed as crucialfor an effective process of learning for adults. According to Knowles, the adult learner takes thecenter stage and all the learning revolves around him or her. Knowles suggests that adult learnersare mature and able to direct themselves rather than relying solely on the guidance andinstructions issued by the teacher (Knowles, 1984). In addition, the adult learners usually bear   Effective practice 4different experiences throughout their lives, which should not be overlooked as they also presentan opportunity for the teachers to learn from those experiences. Moreover, as an individualmatures, his or her preparedness to learn increases tremendously, making this a learner-oriented process. Therefore, as explained by Galbraith (2004), the learners should have the opportunity toformulate the learning objectives.These two theories together recognize the importance of shifting the teacher’s role fromthat of the sole provider of information to that of a facilitator. They recognize the bias that theinitial pedagogy predisposed the learners to in addition to exposing the learner to subjectivelearning which is detrimental to the entire learning process. Additionally, they both recognizethat, unlike the conventional, young students, adult learners are different in that they possessspecific skills required for the learning process (Galbraith, 2004).However, these theories contrast in their conceptualization of the “main actor” in theclassroom context during the learning process. Brookfield sees the facilitator as central to theentire process. The idea is that the facilitator will guide the learners and empower them toultimately become self-directed (Galbraith, 2004). Therefore, the learner is perceived as needingguidance—a notion that Knowles dispels. Knowles’ perspective entails the learner as the praxisof learning, where both the learner and the facilitator have a chance to learn from each other.In conclusion, these two approaches towards adult learning represent a new way of enhancing effective learning. Knowles and Brookfield have both proposed varied theoriesdemonstrating their ideas of what an effective learning process for adults’ looks like. Their  principles although they are different, also demonstrated some similarities.
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