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Abish Behaviourism

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  An Assignment onBehavioral psychologySubmitted byAbish DahalLC00016000024ourth semester  !epal Business CollegeAuthor !ote his research paper #as prepared $or %sychology& BBA'()6(& taught by *r+ Samir Singh Sudanshu&  pro$essor at !epal Business College& ,anpath& Buddhabihar*arg& Biratnagar& !epal  BEHAVIORISM Behaviorism is the conceptual $rame#or- underlying the science o$ behavior+ he scienceitsel$ is o$ten re$erred to as the e.perimental analysis o$ behavior or behavior analysis+ *odern behaviorism emphasi/es the analysis o$ conditions that maintain and change behavior as #ell as the$actors that in$luence the acuisition or learning o$ behavior+Behaviorists also o$$er concepts and analyses that go #ell beyond the common'senseunderstanding o$ re#ard and punishment+ Contemporary behaviorism provides an integrated$rame#or- $or the study o$ human behavior& society& and culture+An important class o$ behavior is selected by its conseuences+ he term operant re$ers to behavior that operates upon the environment to produce e$$ects& outcomes& or conseuences+perant behavior is said to be emitted because it does not depend on an eliciting stimulus+ .ampleso$ operant behavior include manipulation o$ ob3ects& tal-ing #ith others& problem solving& dra#ing&reading& #riting& and many other per$ormances+ Conseuences select this behavior in the sense thatspeci$ic operants occur at high $reuency in a given setting+ or instance& at the pub& a studentsho#s high probability o$ tal-ing to his $riends about sports+ %resumably& this behavior occurs athigh $reuency because his $riends have previously sho#n an interest in such conversation+ he behavior o$ an individual is there$ore adapted to a particular setting by its history o$ conseuences+ Contingencies of reinforcement Behaviorists o$ten $ocus on the analysis o$ environment'behavior relationships+ herelationship bet#een operant behavior and its conseuences de$ines a contingency of reinforcement  +A contingency o$ rein$orcement is the probability that a rein$orcing event #ill $ollo# operant behavior+ 5hen a person turns the ignition -ey o$ the car operant7& this behavior usually results inthe car starting rein$orcement7+ urning the -ey does not guarantee& ho#ever& that the car #ill start8 perhaps it is out o$ gas& the battery hass run do#n& and so on+ hus& the probability o$ rein$orcementis high $or this behavior& but rein$orcement is not certain+ he behavior analyst is interested in ho#the probability o$ rein$orcement is related to the rate and $orm o$ operant behavior+ or e.ample&does the person continue to turn the ignition -ey even though the car doesnt start9 :ualities o$  behavior such as persistence& depression& and elation re$lect the probability o$ rein$orcement+  The Matching Theory *atching theory is an important contribution o$ modern behaviorism+ ;n contrast to theories o$ rational choice proposed by economists and other social scientists& matching theory implies thathumans may not try to ma.imi/e utility or rein$orcement7+ %eople and animals7 do not search $or the strategy that yields the greatest overall returns8 they euali/e their behavior to the obtained rateso$ rein$orcement $rom alternatives+ <esearch suggests that matching rather than ma.imi/ing7occurs because humans $ocus on the immediate e$$ectiveness o$ their behavior+ Applied behaio!r analysis and ed!cation he application o$ behavior principles to improve per$ormance and solve social problems iscalled applied behavior analysis. + %rinciples o$ behavior change have been used to improve the per$ormance o$ university students& increase academic s-ills in public and high school students&teach sel$'care to developmentally delayed children& reduce phobic reactions& get people to #ear seat belts& prevent industrial accidents& and help individuals stop cocaine abuse& among other things+Behavioral interventions have had an impact on such things as clinical psychology& medicine&education& business& counseling& 3ob e$$ectiveness& sports training& the care and treatment o$ animals&environmental protection& and so on+ Applied behavioral e.periments have ranged $rominvestigating the behavior o$ psychotic individuals to designing contingencies o$ entire institutions+ne e.ample o$ applied behavior analysis in higher education is the method o$ personali/edinstruction+ %ersonali/ed instruction is a sel$'paced learning system that contrasts #ith traditionallecture methods that o$ten are used to instruct college students+ ;n a university lecture& a pro$essor stands in $ront o$ a number o$ students and tal-s about his or her area o$ e.pertise+ here arevariations on this theme e+g+& students are encouraged to be active rather than passive learners7& basically the lecture method o$ teaching is the same as it has been $or thousands o$ years+Dr+ red =eller 1>6?7 recogni/ed that the lecture method o$ teaching #as ine$$icient and inmany cases a $ailure+ @e reasoned that anyone #ho had acuired the s-ills needed to attend college#as capable o$ success$ully mastering most or all college courses+ Some students might ta-e longer than others to reach e.pertise in a course& but the over#helming ma3ority o$ students #ould be ableto do so+ ;$ behavior principles #ere to be ta-en seriously& there #ere no bad students& onlyine$$ective teaching methods+;n a seminal article& titled ood'bye& teacher+ + + & =eller outlined a college teachingmethod based on principles o$ operant conditioning+ =ellers personali/ed system o$ instruction%S;7 involves arranging the course material in a seuence o$ graduated steps units or modules7+  ach student moves through the course material at his or her o#n pace and the modules areset up to ensure that most students have a high rate o$ success learning the course content+ Somestudents may $inish the course in a $e# #ee-s& others reuire a semester or longer+ Course material is bro-en do#n into many small units o$ reading and i$ reuired7laboratory assignments+ Students earn points conditioned rein$orcement7 $or completing unit testsand lab assignments+ *astery o$ lab assignments and unit tests is reuired+ ;$ test scores are notclose to per$ect& the test in di$$erent $ormat7 must be ta-en again a$ter a revie# o$ the material $or that unit+ he assignments and tests build on one another so they must be completed in a speci$iedorder+Comparison studies have evaluated student per$ormance on %S; courses against the per$ormance o$ students given computer'based instruction& audio'tutorial methods& traditionallectures& visual'based instruction& and other programmed instruction methods+ College studentsinstructed by %S; outper$orm students taught by these other methods #hen given a common $inale.amination+ Despite this positive outcome& logistical problems in organi/ing %S; courses such asteaching to mastery level most students get an A $or the course7& and allo#ing students more timethan a semester to complete the course& have #or-ed against #idespread adoption o$ %S; inuniversities and colleges+ Concl!sion *odern behaviorism emphasi/es the conte.t o$ behavior and rein$orcement+ he biologicalhistory o$ an organism $avors or constrains speci$ic environment'behavior interactions+ hisinterplay o$ biology and behavior is a central $ocus o$ behavioral research+ Another aspect o$ conte.tconcerns alternative sources o$ rein$orcement+ An individual selects a speci$ic option based on therelative rate o$ rein$orcement+ his means that behavior is regulated not only by its conseuences but also by the conseuences arranged $or alternative actions+inally& applied behavior analysis& as a technology o$ behavior change& is having a #ideimpact on socially important problems o$ human behavior+

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Mar 18, 2018
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