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Abrupt Software Cost Estimation Technique Based on Basic Requirement

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Abrupt Software Cost Estimation Technique Based on Basic Requirement
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  International Journal of Research in Computer andCommunication Technology, Vol 3, Issue9,September-2014ISSN (Online) 2278-5841ISSN (Print) 2320-5156 www.ijrcct.orgPage932 Abrupt Software Cost Estimation Technique Based onBasic Requirement Md.MijanurRahman,Md.NazimUddin, Sujan Chandra Sarker Senior Lecturer, Department of Software EngineeringDaffodil International UniversityDhaka, BangladeshSoftware EngineeringDepartmentDaffodil International UniversityDhaka, BangladeshSoftware Engineering DepartmentDaffodil International UniversityDhaka, Bangladeshmmr.sinha@daffodilvarsity.edu.bd , nazim_107@diu.edu.bd,sujansu@gmail.com  Abstract- Software cost estimation is the process tomeasure the required effort and cost to build system. Inthe project management still it is one of the mostdifficulttasks. There is a lack of reliable estimation technique andremains on going challenge to software developer.Trustworthy estimation techniques give proper schedule,budget, effort, risk, resource. Software cost estimationmore challenging to ITindustry because of continuouschanging resources and involvement of differentcustomer. Both software project management andcustomer are suffering in this issue. In many cases it isnecessary to estimate cost urgent for customer withoutadvance requirements. Most of the estimation techniquesdevelop based on details requirement. In reality customerwants to know the cost of the system immediately beforegiving them full requirement of the system. We aregoing to propose an Abrupt Software cost estimationtechnique based on basic requirement. The main focusof this model to calculate primary cost to solveimmediate problem of cost needed to develop system.Our model calculates cost by considering parameters likefeasibility study, basic requirement, time duration, risk management, project analysis and others. This model isflexible because estimated cost varies with change of requirement.  Index Terms  — cost estimation;software cost;software model; software techniquesg; softwaredevelooment problem  ; I. INTRUDUCTION C ost estimation is one of the most significantproceedings in software project managementor software developmentindustry[1] [2][3][4].Accurate Software cost estimation is mostimportant for every kind of project. SoftwareCostestimation helps us to complete the project withintime andbudget [5].Mostsoftware projects fails to deliver thesoftware product within estimated budget andtimedue tolack of planning,unachievabletechnical objectives, failed technology orunachievable requirements. Software costestimation becomes very difficult for customersand developers [6].So exact cost estimation is very importantbecause:  Software cost estimation is mostly neededfor both the customers and developers.  To make goodunderstanding and goodsatisfaction.  It supports the project manager and thedevelopment team.  Easily determines what resource will beused withrespect to an overall businessplan.  Easily identifies development risk andothers problems.  Developer easilydetermines how todevelop, which design used this project.  Customers expect real development coststo be in line with estimated project costs.Without requirement collections software Costestimation is not possible. So it is very important.Recently we find many problems about softwaredevelopment because clients want to know the cost  International Journal of Research in Computer andCommunication Technology, Vol 3, Issue9,September-2014ISSN (Online) 2278-5841ISSN (Print) 2320-5156 www.ijrcct.orgPage933 they have to bear to make software (withoutexpressing their requirement). So in this paper wehave come up with a new model and a formula.This Model name is AET (Abrupt EstimationTechnique) model. The AET model is srcinallyused in the software development cost estimationfield (Web application, Management Software,desktop based software etc.). First attribute of thismodel is, software cost estimation withoutcollectingfull requirement. So by using this modelwe can estimate the cost that will be required fordeveloping the software before full requirementcollection.For determining Software cost estimation therequired estimates are to be followed:  Effort (usually inperson-months)  Project duration (in calendar time)  Cost (in dollars)Generally a project begins with a basic idea andthen requirements are collected after discussingwith the customer. Software cost estimation isdependent on attributes likecustomer requirements,Organizers, worker, programming language,database, salary, network etc. After collecting allthe requirements we use the estimating model forsoftware development. Almost all the models ortechniques are builds up based on software size,software requirements, and Software parameters.Recently many software industries uses popularsoftware cost estimation like COCOMO 81,COCOMO11, FP and DelphiModel [7]. Presentlyevery estimation processes are done aftercompleting overall requirements collection. Butsituation arises where some customers want toknow the estimated cost of the Software beforerequirements collection. So it is a problem to anysoftware industry for software developing. So weare putting forward a new model which estimatesthe so ftware just based on basic requirements that’s means software cost estimation before fullrequirements collection. There are six steps in ourproposed model likeFeasibility study, EstablishedEstimation Scope, Basic Requirements, Timeduration, Risk Management, Project Analysis. Ourproposed model has a formula. If any softwareindustry uses our formula then they will be able tosay cost estimation before full requirementscollection.The remaining part of this paper is organized asfollows:Section2Background: The research related work.Section3Problem statement: Describes softwarecost estimation problem.Section4: Discussions and research questions.Section5: we present theprocessof estimation.Section6:we presentour proposemodel, how ourresearch is designedand how the information arecollected.Section 7: Propose model analysis.Section 8: Formula description.Section 9: Case study.Section 10: Discusses the results and analysis.Section 11:Discussions on Future workandplanning. II. BACKGROUNDSoftware estimation is the most essential part of thesoftware development [5]. Many software costestimation models and techniques have beendeveloped over the last four years [8].Softwaredevelopment project many times it fails to the caseof software cost estimation, regarding software costestimation project planning on another importantfails is requirement [9].The software development & software businessmostly depends on software cost estimation.Software estimation is an essential part ofthesoftware development process, where Softwareproject failure is an important issue for softwaredevelopers . Despite going to over time and cost,approximately between 30% and 40% of thesoftware projects are completed and the others fail[4]. Traditionally researchers such as COCOMO(Boehm, 1981) [9], as a function of effort on theexpected size of the shelf where the algorithmicmodels estimated by using the mathematicalrelations. Using statistical techniques such asstepwise regression or improve local models. Thereis a lot of work , regression [ 11 ] based on [ 10 ]based , dynamic learning based model-basedestimation techniques , expertise in the field hasbeen conducted by several authors [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14] and model-based techniques such COCOMO.Common Bayesian compound as a think,COCOMO, the checkpoint and see. That iscommon problem and they haveavailable solution.Software cost estimation is a critical phase for alltime, But now a days software engineers has toface many new problem. Software cost estimationimmediately is a big issue for quickly softwarebudget.Related Studya. COCOMO: Barry Boehmdeveloped theCOCOMO (Constructive Cost Model) in 1981. TheCOCOMO model is a regression based softwarecost estimation model. It is the most popularmethod, which is categorized in algorithmicmodels. The basic COCOMO model has a verysimple form: WhereK1 and K2 are two parametersdependent on the application and developmentenvironment. Estimation of COCOMO model can  International Journal of Research in Computer andCommunication Technology, Vol 3, Issue9,September-2014ISSN (Online) 2278-5841ISSN (Print) 2320-5156 www.ijrcct.orgPage934 accurately, which considers qualification andexperience of the development team.b. COCOMO-II: COCOMO-IIdetermines theefforts (in Person-Months) required for a projectbased on software project's size in KSLOC (KiloSource Line Of Code) as well as other cost factorsknown as scale factors and effort multipliers byc.  Expert Judgment  : Experts generallyderived anestimate of the new and past information about theproject is available on a new project and uses theirexperience and understanding [17].The 'expert'isdependent on [18]another technique, namely the'Delphimethod'expert judgment approachtries toovercome some of the blame.Coordinator experts'estimates, andestimates another iteration of therationale for the request and prepares a summary of responses from experts in a form [18].Expert judgment techniques in consultation with aspecialist or expert groups involved in softwarecost estimation.They arrive at an estimate of thecost by their experience and understanding of theproposed project [18].d.  Bottom-up Estimating Method: Every softwarecomponents, cost estimates, andthen combinestheresults to arrive at an overall project cost isestimated.Different elements have a chance tobalance out the error in the estimation,because it ismore stable.But there is more time consuming[19].e. Top-down Estimating Method: It is the oppositeofthe bottom-upapproach [20].An overall costestimate for the project is derived from theproperties of the global software projects.Then theproject is partitioned into several lower-levelcomponents.It's fast,but easy to implement low-level issues [18].f.  Estimation based on expert judgment  :  Estimationbased on expert judgment  is done by getting ad-vices from experts who have extensive experiencesin similar projects. Examples of expertise basedtechniques include Delphi technique [21], [22],Rule BasedSystems [22].g. Delphi: The purpose of the Delphi method tocombine expert opinion andprevent bias causeddue toposition,the tendency is to prevent ordominant personality or status.A special meetingof experts held in Delphi projects and tries toachieve true data. III. PROBLEM STATEMENTIs it possible to dosoftwarecost estimation beforerequirementcollection [23]?Software developmentis a big issue in the price of the software. Forexample, say someone asked how much money ittook to makeshopmanagement software (or anysoftware). They did not say anything about thissoftware but asked only how much it cost (withoutrequirement). But what could be the answer,because without the necessary information it can'tbe answered. In the case of software developmentmany have cost estimation but have no accurateway to do software development cost estimationbefore full requirement collection. Our Problemstatement isAbrupt Software cost estimationtechnique based on basic requirement. IV. RESEARCH QUESTIONQuestion1.How to be estimated software costestimation before full requirementscollection?2.Do you think that price determination isdifficult before software development? V. PROCESS OF ESTIMATIONSoftwarecostestimationprocess,the basicNine-step:1)Thespecific goals.2)Feasibility of the software being tested.3)Gathering the software basic requirements.4)Forinformation and resources necessary tocreate a sketch.5)Analysis the software development time.6)Using AET Formula to estimate the cost.7)Risk management.8)Balancing different estimates and restate theprocess.9)Monitoring the estimated output VI. PROPOSE MODELWe proposed a model to estimate software cost(show in figure 1). It contains is Feasibility study,Established Estimation Scope, Conceptexploration, Basic Requirements, project module,software resource, Time duration, Risk   International Journal of Research in Computer andCommunication Technology, Vol 3, Issue9,September-2014ISSN (Online) 2278-5841ISSN (Print) 2320-5156 www.ijrcct.orgPage935 Management, project analysis,focus group,software size, observation, Maintenance. Figure 1: AET Model VII. PROPOSE MODEL ANALYSISWhen we will make software cost estimation thenwe are to necessary full requirements; but ourproject model is making cost estimation before fullrequirements. So there six steps of our model to dosoftware cost estimation.The six steps is providedbelowA. Feasibility study: During feasibility studywe shall find out that where there the software isfeasible or not. If not we shall abandon the idea.Afeasibility study is valuable for Starting a newProject, Increase of an existing business. Feasibilitystudy is a study made before committing to aproject. Actually feasibility studydeterminesthree concerns; one is go ahead,do not go aheadand thinks again.A feasibility study is need whenwe start a new project. In this paper our newapproach model firstissue is feasibility study. Sofeasibility study is need for that when start a newproject in any software industry,firstlyneededto know that’s feasible or unfeasible for the software developing. Iffeasible,youneed tostartwork ontheprojectOrIf  isn’t feasible,you don’t needtostartwork onthe project.B.  Established estimations scope: When westart any project then we needed to establishedsoftware estimation. In this step we discuss aboutthe project in our meeting .In this meeting we willget some suggestion about what kind of elementsare needed for this project.C.  Basic requirements: There are fourcategories of the basic requirements. They are firstcategory project title, second is Interview, three isproject module and four is software resource.a. Title Project: At first we are to search thetitle or project type from the client Type of projectwill depend on project title.b.  Interview: We will take interview fromclient to know about basic requirements so that wecan understand about the conception of the project.The questions are like 1. What is the period of theproject? 2. Whatkind of category of the project 3.What kind of server will be used there? 4. Is thereany gateway in this project? 5. Is this projectdesktop based or online based? In this way we willcollect some basic requirements from the client.c. Project Module: Module is veryimperative for software development becausemodule is a part of program. The module gives abroad overview of software development project. Adifferent requirement by the client could beconsidered as a new module. This model, module isthepart of basic requirements, when wewillcollectto the basic requirements thenweneedtoknowabout concept of module for this project,howthemodulescanbedevelopedinthisproject.  International Journal of Research in Computer andCommunication Technology, Vol 3, Issue9,September-2014ISSN (Online) 2278-5841ISSN (Print) 2320-5156 www.ijrcct.orgPage936 Theseexpertswilljudgethe project,howtheprojectmodulewill bethedeveloped.d. Software Resource: Software resource isthe major issue for developing software. In the stepof basic requirements we shall find out all softwareresource when Expert consulting with clients.Softwareresourcescanbe programming language,database, gateway,domain and hosting etc.e. Others: If we have to mistake of somebasicrequirements for costestimation then you areusing O(Others) Option forincludes requirements.D. Time duration: Time duration is verysignificant for software cost estimate. Softwaredevelopment time duration may be fixed-up by theopinion of client or by the discussion of development team or Expert. There two kinds of times duration one is person, two is day.Timedurationdefineslot of timeonthedatacollectionscheduleandonpreviousprojectsa. Person: Time duration may be fixed onman power.Expertsin this fieldwilldeterminehowmany peoplewill work.b.  Day: Day that’s means working day of  developer.c.  Requirements Collection: Time durationis any be fixed depending on item of requirement.This field Expert collects to the requirements fordeveloping project.Expertsin thisfieldwillcollecttheinformationrequirementsfordevelopingprojectsd. Previous project: Previousprojectscantakehelpfromexpertsif necessary.How manydayswillfinishthisproject?Sotime duration may be fixed up on previousknowledge of previous project.E.  Risk management: Software risk management is one promising approach to dealwith system or project failures.Aprojectcanhavemany typesof risk. For exampleSize risks,Process risk, Technology risks, Tools risks,Customer risks, Estimation risks, maintenance risk,development risk, people risk. The specialists willfollow this project did not have any risk.Ifthereisa risk oftheproject thenwilltakethe cooperationofexperts.F. Project Analysis: There are five categoriesof the project analysis. They are first categoryFocus, second is Observation, three is softwaresize, four is maintenance and five is brainstorming.a. Focus: After interview with the clientsExperts will come to contact and discusses with thedevelopment team by every point of project.b. Observation: In the step of basicrequirements we shall find out every matter byobservation. For example, Focus, Interview, ProjectConception etc.c. Software Size: The software size is themost significant aspect that affects the softwarecost [24]. The Software Project Size defines themeasurement of problem complexity in terms of effort and time essential to develop the softwareproduct.Experts remember that, to accuratelyestimate the project size.d.  Maintenance: maintenance means, afterdevelopment of software project how many timewill be given to the client for this service.e.  Brainstorming: After understatingaboutproject type, software development team withresearch that if there any problem to complete theproject. After brainstorming they will be able todecide it.G. Others: If we have to mistake of somerequirementsor modulefor cost estimation thenyou are using OT (Others) Option for volatility of software requirements. VIII. FORMULA DESCRIPTIONWe get some function types in this model. Themodel function types is person (P), Day( D),Salary (S), Industrial cost( IC), Software Tools(ST), Others(O), Time( T), Risk( R). Now we aresee the figure 2, which figure show the functiontypes.
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