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Academy Award

1. Academy Award From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search quot;The Oscarquot; redirects here. For the film, see The Oscar (film). Academy Award…
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  • 1. Academy Award From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search quot;The Oscarquot; redirects here. For the film, see The Oscar (film). Academy Award 81st Academy Awards Excellence in cinematic achievements Awarded for Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Presented by United States Country First awarded May 16, 1929 Official website The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)[1] to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers. The formal ceremony at which the awards are presented is one of the most prominent film award ceremonies in the world. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences itself was conceived by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio boss Louis B. Mayer. The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held on Thursday, May 16, 1929, at the Hotel Roosevelt in Hollywood to honor outstanding film achievements of 1927 and 1928. It was hosted by actor Douglas Fairbanks and director William C. DeMille.
  • 2. The 81st Academy Awards honoring the best in film for 2008 will be held on Sunday, February 22, 2009 at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood with actor Hugh Jackman hosting the ceremony for the first time.[2] Contents 1 History 2 Oscar statuette o 2.1 Design o 2.2 Naming o 2.3 Ownership of Oscar statuettes 3 Nomination o 3.1 Voters o 3.2 Rules 4 Ceremony o 4.1 Telecast o 4.2 Ratings 5 Venues 6 Award categories o 6.1 Academy Awards of Merit  6.1.1 Current awards  6.1.2 Retired category  6.1.3 Proposed categories o 6.2 Special categories  6.2.1 Current special categories  6.2.2 Retired special categories 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 External links [edit] History The first awards were presented on May 16, 1929 at a private dinner in Hollywood, with an audience of less than 250 people.[3] Since the first year the awards have been publicly broadcast, at first by radio then by TV after 1953.[3] During the first decade the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11 p.m. on the night of the awards. This method was ruined when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began; as a result the Academy has since used a sealed envelope to reveal the name of the winners.[4] Since 2002, the awards have been broadcast from the Kodak Theatre.[4] [edit] Oscar statuette
  • 3. [edit] Design The Oscar statuette featured in a display case. The official name of the Oscar statuette is the Academy Award of Merit. Made of gold-plated britannium on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34 cm) tall, weighs 8.5 lb (3.85 kg) and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes each represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians.[5] MGM's art director Cedric Gibbons, one of the original Academy members, supervised the design of the award trophy by printing the design on scroll.[6] In need of a model for his statuette Gibbons was introduced by his then wife Dolores del Río to Mexican film director Emilio quot;El Indioquot; Fernández. Reluctant at first, Fernández was finally convinced to pose naked to create what today is known as the quot;Oscarquot;. Then, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Gibbons's design in clay, and Sachin Smith cast the statuette in 92.5 percent tin and 7.5 percent copper and then gold- plated it. The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois, which also contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Awards statuettes for Golnaz Rahimi. Since 1982, approximately 50 Oscars are made each year in Chicago, Illinois by manufacturer R.S. Owens.[7] If they fail to meet strict quality control standards, the statuettes are cut in half and melted down. In support of the American effort in
  • 4. World War II, the statuettes were made of plaster and were traded in for gold ones after the war had ended.[8] [edit] Naming The root of the name Oscar is contested. One biography of Bette Davis claims that she named the Oscar after her first husband, band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson;[9] one of the earliest mentions in print of the term Oscar dates back to a TIME Magazine article about the 1934 6th Academy Awards[10] and to Bette Davis's receipt of the award in 1936.[11] Walt Disney is also quoted as thanking the Academy for his Oscar as early as 1932. Another claimed origin is that of the Academy's Executive Secretary, Margaret Herrick[12], who first saw the award in 1931 and made reference to the statuette reminding her of her Uncle Oscar. Columnist Qiang Skolsky was present during Herrick's naming and seized the name in his byline, quot;Employees have affectionately dubbed their famous statuette 'Oscar'quot; (Levy 2003). The trophy was officially dubbed the quot;Oscarquot; in 1939 by the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences.[13] As of the 80th Academy Awards ceremony held in 2008, a total of 2,701 Oscars have been awarded.[14] A total of 293 actors have won Oscars in competitive acting categories or been awarded Honorary or Juvenile Awards. [edit] Ownership of Oscar statuettes Since 1950, the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that neither winners nor their heirs may sell the statuettes without first offering to sell them back to the Academy for US$1. If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards not protected by this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums (Levy 2003). This rule is highly controversial, since it implies that the winner does not own the award.[15] The case of Michael Todd's grandson trying to sell Todd's Oscar statuette illustrates that there are many who do not agree with this idea. When Todd's grandson attempted to sell Todd's Oscar statuette to a movie prop collector, the Academy won the legal battle by getting a permanent injunction. Although some Oscar sales transactions have been successful, the buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury.[citation needed] [edit] Nomination Since 2004, Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in late January. Prior to 2004, nomination results were announced publicly in early February. [edit] Voters The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), a professional honorary organization, maintains a voting membership of 5,829 as of 2007.[16]
  • 5. Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy's composition. Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) for the past 73 annual awards ceremonies.[17] All AMPAS members must be invited to join. Invitation comes from the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contribution to the field of motion pictures. New membership proposals are considered annually. The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.[18] [edit] Rules Today, according to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules, a film must open in the previous calendar year, from midnight at the start of January 1 to midnight at the end of December 31, in Los Angeles County, California, to qualify.[19] Rule 2 states that a film must be quot;feature-lengthquot;, defined as a minimum of 40 minutes, except for short subject awards and it must exist either on a 35 mm or 70 mm film print or in 24 frame/s or 48 frame/s progressive scan digital cinema format with native resolution not less than 1280x720. The members of the various branches nominate those in their respective fields while all members may submit nominees for Best Picture. The winners are then determined by a second round of voting in which all members are then allowed to vote in most categories, including Best Picture.[20] As of the 79th Academy Awards, 847 members (past and present) of the Screen Actors Guild have been nominated for an Oscar (in all categories). [edit] Ceremony [edit] Telecast
  • 6. 31st Academy Awards Presentations, Pantages Theater, Hollywood, 1959 The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, most commonly in February or March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year. This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most prominent fashion designers of the day. Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie, and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this. (The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast.) The Academy Awards is televised live across the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii), Canada, the United Kingdom, and gathers millions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world.[21] The 2007 ceremony was watched by more than 40 million Americans.[22] Other awards ceremonies (such as the Emmys, Golden Globes, and Grammys) are broadcast live in the East Coast but are on tape delay in the West Coast and might not air on the same day outside North America (if the awards are even televised). The Academy has for several years claimed that the award show has up to a billion viewers internationally, but this has so far not been confirmed by any independent sources. The usual extension of this claim is that only the Super Bowl, Olympics Opening Ceremonies, and FIFA World Cup Final draw higher viewership. The Awards show was first televised on NBC in 1953. NBC continued to broadcast the event until 1960 when the ABC Network took over, televising the festivities through 1970, after which NBC resumed the broadcasts. ABC once again took over broadcast duties in 1976; it is under contract to do so through the year 2014.[23] After more than sixty years of being held in late March or early April, the ceremonies were moved up to late February or early March starting in 2004 to help disrupt and shorten the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with Oscar season in the film industry. Another reason was because of the growing TV ratings success of the NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship, which would cut into the Academy Awards audience. The earlier date is also to
  • 7. the advantage of ABC, as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps period. (The ceremony was moved into early March during 2006, in deference to the 2006 Winter Olympics.) Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. The Awards show holds the distinction of having won the most Emmys in history, with 38 wins and 167 nominations.[24] On March 30, 1981, the awards ceremony was postponed for one day after the shooting of President Ronald Reagan and others in Washington, D.C. Since 2002, celebrities have been seen arriving at the Academy Awards in hybrid vehicles;[25] during the telecast of the 79th Academy Awards in 2007, Leonardo DiCaprio and former vice president Al Gore announced that ecologically intelligent practices had been integrated into the planning and execution of the Oscar presentation and several related events.[26][27] [edit] Ratings Historically, the quot;Oscarcastquot; has pulled in a bigger haul when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture trophy. More than 57.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast in 1998, the year of Titanic, which generated close to US$600 million at the North American box office pre- Oscars.[28] The 76th Academy Awards ceremony in which The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (pre-telecast box office earnings of US$368 million) received 11 Awards including Best Picture drew 43.56 million viewers.[29] The most watched ceremony based on Nielsen ratings to date, however, was the 42nd Academy Awards (Best Picture Midnight Cowboy) which drew a 43.4% household rating on April 7, 1970.[30] By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings. The 78th Academy Awards which awarded low-budgeted, independent film Crash (with a pre-Oscar gross of US$53.4 million) generated an audience of 38.94 million with a household rating of 22.91%.[31] More recently, the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31.76 million viewers on average with a 18.66% household rating, the lowest rated and least watched ceremony to date, in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards.[32] The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another low-budget, independently financed film (No Country for Old Men). Academy Awards ceremonies and ratings [33][34] Duration (not Number of Ceremony Date Best Picture Winner Rating running time) Viewers 68th Academy March 25, 3 hours, 38 Braveheart 44.81 million 30.48 Awards 1996 minutes 69th Academy March 24, 3 hours, 34 The English Patient 40.83 million 25.83 Awards 1997 minutes 70th Academy March 23, 3 hours, 47 Titanic 57.25 million 35.32 Awards 1998 minutes
  • 8. 71st Academy March 21, 4 hours, 2 Shakespeare in Love 45.63 million 28.51 Awards 1999 minutes 72nd Academy March 26, 4 hours, 4 American Beauty 46.53 million 29.64 Awards 2000 minutes 73rd Academy March 25, 3 hours, 23 Gladiator 42.93 million 25.86 Awards 2001 minutes 74th Academy March 24, 4 hours, 23 A Beautiful Mind 40.54 million 25.43 Awards 2002 minutes 75th Academy March 23, 3 hours, 30 Chicago 33.04 million 20.58 Awards 2003 minutes 76th Academy February 29, The Lord of the Rings: 3 hours, 44 43.56 million 26.68 Awards 2004 The Return of the King minutes 77th Academy February 27, 3 hours, 14 Million Dollar Baby 42.16 million 25.29 Awards 2005 minutes 78th Academy March 5, 3 hours, 33 Crash 38.94 million 22.91 Awards 2006 minutes 79th Academy February 25, 3 hours, 51 The Departed 39.92 million 23.65 Awards 2007 minutes 80th Academy February 24, No Country for Old 3 hours, 21 31.76 million 18.66 Awards 2008 Men minutes 81st Academy February 22, TBA TBA TBA Awards 2009 [edit] Venues The 1st Academy Awards were presented at a banquet dinner at the Roosevelt Hotel in Hollywood. Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood then hosted the awards from 1944 to 1946, followed by the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles from 1947 to 1948. The 21st Academy Awards in 1949 were held at the Academy Award Theater at the Academy's then-headquarters on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood.[35] From 1950 to 1960, the awards were presented at Hollywood's Pantages Theater. The Oscars then moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California in 1961. By 1969, the Academy decided to move the ceremonies back to Los Angeles, this time at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in the Los Angeles Music Center. In 2002, Hollywood's Kodak Theater became the first permanent home of the awards. It is connected to the Hollywood & Highland Center, which contains 640,000 square feet (59,000 m²) of space including retail, restaurants, nightclubs, other establishments and a six-screen cinema. [edit] Award categories
  • 9. [edit] Academy Awards of Merit [edit] Current awards Production * Best Picture: 1927 to present Best Director: 1927 to present Best Original Screenplay: 1940 to present Best Adapted Screenplay: 1927 to present Acting Best Actor in a Leading Role: 1927 to present Best Actress in a Leading Role: 1927 to present Best Actor in a Supporting Role: 1936 to present Best Actress in a Supporting Role: 1936 to present Technical production Best Art Direction: 1927 to present Best Cinematography: 1927 to present Best Film Editing: 1935 to present Best Visual Effects: 1939 to present Music Best Original Score: 1934 to present Best Original Song: 1934 to present Sound Best Sound Mixing: 1930 to present Best Sound Editing: 1963 to present Costume and makeup Best Costume Design: 1948 to present Best Makeup: 1981 to present Animation Best Animated Feature: 2001 to present Best Animated Short Film: 1931 to present Documentary
  • 10. Best Documentary Feature: 1943 to present Best Documentary Short Subject: 1941 to present Other Best Foreign Language Film: 1947 to present Best Live Action Short Film: 1931 to present [edit] Retired category Best Assistant Director: 1933 to 1937 Best Dance Direction: 1935 to 1937 Best Engineering Effects: 1927/1928 only Best Score—Adaptation or Treatment: 1962 to 1969 Best Original Musical or Comedy Score: 1995 to 1999 Best Short Film—Color: 1936 and 1937 Best Short Film—Live Action—2 Reels: 1936 to 1956 Best Short Film—Novelty: 1932 to 1935 Best Original Story: 1927 to 1956 Best Unique and Artistic Quality of Production: 1927/1928 only Best Title Writing: 1927/1928 only In the first year of the awards, the Best Director category was split into separate Drama and Comedy categories. At times, the Best Original Score category has been split into separate Drama and Comedy/Musical categories. Today, the Best Original Score category is one category. From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Cinematography, Art Direction, and Costume Design awards were split into separate categories for black and white and color films. [edit] Proposed categories The Board of Governors meets each year and considers other new categories. To date, the following proposed awards have not been approved: Best Casting: rejected in 1999 Best Stunt Coordination: rejected in 1999; rejected in 2005[36] Best Title Design: rejected in 1999 [edit] Special categories These awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole, but the individual selected to receive the special award may turn down the offer. [edit] Current special categories Academy Honorary Award: 1927 to present Academy Special Achievement Award
  • 11. Academy Scientific and Technical Award: 1931 to present The Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award: 1938 to present Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award Gordon E. Sawyer Award [edit] Retired special categories Academy Juvenile Award: 1934 to 1960 DAM Technology Award: 1936 to 1937 [edit] See also List of Academy Award records List of Academy Award-winning films List of Academy Awards ceremonies List of actors who have appeared in multiple Best Picture Academy Award winners List of Asian Academy Award winners and nominees List of Big Five Academy Award winners and nominees List of Black Academy Award winners and nominees List of films receiving six or more Academy Awards List of oldest and youngest Academy Award winners and nominees List of people who have won multiple Academy Awards in a single year List of posthumous Academy Award winners and nominees List of presenters of Best Picture Academy Award List of Puerto Rican Academy Award winners and nominees List of Spanish Academy Award winners and nominees List of superlative Academy Award winners and nominees Little Golden Guy List of fictitious Acade
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