Documents

AHDS-Digitising History.pdf

Description
Página 1 de 35 Digitising History A Guide to Creating Digital Resources from Historical Documents SEAN TOWNSEND, CRESSIDA CHAPPELL AND OSCAR STRUIJVÉ Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................................3 CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................3 1.1 Background.........................................
Categories
Published
of 35
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  Página 1  de 35 Digitising History  A Guide to Creating Digital Resources from  Historical Documents SEAN TOWNSEND, CRESSIDA CHAPPELL AND OSCAR STRUIJVÉ Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................3CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................................3 1.1 Background .................................................................................................................................................................3 1.2 Aims and objectives ....................................................................................................................................................4 1.3 Outline .........................................................................................................................................................................4 CHAPTER 2 : MANAGING DIGITAL RESOURCE CREATION PROJECTS..............................................4 2.1 Introduction  .................................................................................................................................................................4 2.2 The context of digital resource creation .....................................................................................................................5 2.3 Planning digital resource creation ..............................................................................................................................5 2.4 Creating breathing space: specifications and priorities .............................................................................................6 2.5 The link between resource creation and research .....................................................................................................62.6 Documenting the project.......................................................................................................................................7 2.7 Managing real world projects: tough decisions ..........................................................................................................7 2.8 Summary .....................................................................................................................................................................8 CHAPTER 3 : FROM SOURCE TO DATABASE.........................................................................................8 3.1 Introduction  .................................................................................................................................................................8 3.2 Defining aims and objectives of the project ...............................................................................................................8 3.2.1 General project objectives ........................................................................................................................83.2.2 Data objectives...........................................................................................................................................9 3.3 Links between source and database.................................................................................................................10 3.3.1 Source assessment ....................................................................................................................................113.3.2 Will the source 'fit'? ....................................................................................................................................11 3.4 Sketching the database structure .............................................................................................................................12 3.4.1 Sources and tables ......................................................................................................................................13 3.4.2 Fields and data types ...................................................................................................................................13 3.5 Transcription and data entry .....................................................................................................................................14 3.5.1 Transcription methods  .................................................................................................................................15 3.5.2 Codes and standardisation ..........................................................................................................................16 CHAPTER 4 : FURTHER DATA AND PRESERVATION ISSUES.............................................................17 4.1 Introduction  ...............................................................................................................................................................17 4.2 Database integrity and practice ................................................................................................................................17  Página 2  de 35 4.2.1 Error checking, back-ups and validation ......................................................................................................17 4.2.2 Common problems .......................................................................................................................................18 4.3 Software, formats and preservation standards ........................................................................................................19 4.3.1 Software selection ........................................................................................................................................20 4.3.2 The importance of data formats ...................................................................................................................21 4.3.3 Preservation standards ................................................................................................................................21 CHAPTER 5 : DOCUMENTING A DATA CREATION PROJECT..............................................................23 5.1 Why is good documentation important? ...................................................................................................................235.2 Guidel ines for documenting a data creation project....................................................................................23  5.2.1 Contents.....................................................................................................................................................23 5.2.2 Provenance................................................................................................................................................23 5.2.3 Structure......................................................................................................................................................24 5.2.4 Terms and conditions................................................................................................................................25 CHAPTER 6 : ARCHIVING AND PRESERVING DATA.............................................................................25 6.1 What is the History Data Service?  ...........................................................................................................................25 6.2 What are the benefits of depositing data with the HDS? .........................................................................................25 6.2.1 Ensuring preservation ..................................................................................................................................25 6.2.2 Providing access ..........................................................................................................................................25 6.2.3 Professional recognition ...............................................................................................................................26 6.3 Step-by-step guide to depositing data with the HDS ...............................................................................................26 6.4 Further information ....................................................................................................................................................27 CHAPTER 7 : GLOSSARY AND BIBLIOGRAPHY....................................................................................28 7.1 Glossary ....................................................................................................................................................................28 7.2 Bibliography  ..............................................................................................................................................................31 Executive Summary AcknowledgementsChapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Background1.2  Aims and objectives1.3 Outline Chapter 2: Managing Digital Resource Creation Projects 2.1 Introduction2.2 The context of digital resource creation2.3 Planning digital resource creation2.4 Creating breathing space: specifications and priorities2.5 The link between resource creation and research2.6 Documenting the project2.7 Managing real world projects: tough decisions2.8 Summary Chapter 3: From Source to Database 3.1 Introduction3.2 Defining aims and objectives of the project3.3 Links between source and database3.4 Sketching the database structure3.5 Transcription and data entry  Página 3  de 35 Chapter 4: Further Data and Preservation Issues 4.1 Introduction4.2 Database integrity and practice4.3 Software, formats and preservation standards Chapter 5: Documenting a Data Creation Project 5.1 Why is good documentation important?5.2 Guidelines for documenting a data creation project Chapter 6: Archiving and Preserving Data 6.1 What is the History Data Service?6.2 What are the benefits of depositing data with the HDS?6.3 Step-by-step guide to depositing data with the HDS6.4 Further information Chapter 7: Glossary and Bibliography 7.1 Glossary7.2 Bibliography Executive Summary This guide to creating, documenting and preserving digital resources derived from historicaldocuments, is intended as a reference work for individuals and organisations involved with, or planning,the computerisation of historical source documents. It aims to recommend good practice and standardsthat are generic and relevant to a range of data creation situations, from student projects through to large-scale research projects. The guide focuses on the creation of tabular data which can be used indatabases, spreadsheets or statistics packages. Many of the guidelines are, however, applicable to other more textual methodologies.The guide includes a glossary and a bibliography of recommended reading, and offersguidance about: ã  Effectively designing and managing a data creation project. ã  Transferring historical source documents into digital form and designing a database. ã  Choosing appropriate data formats and ensuring that a digital resource can be preserved withoutsignificant information loss. ã  Documenting a data creation project.It has been commissioned by the History Data Service as part of the Arts and HumanitiesData Service publication series  Guides to Good Practice in the Creation and Use of Digital Resources .The series aims to provide guidance about applying recognised good practice and standards to thecreation and use of digital resources in the arts and humanities.This guide is also available in print from Oxbow Books (ISBN 1-900188-91-0). Pleasecontact Oxbow Books for more details, email: oxbow@oxbowbooks.com, telephone: +44 (0) 1865241249, fax: ++44 (0) 1865 794449. CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background This guide has been commissioned by the History Data Service (HDS) as part of the  Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) publication series Guides to Good Practice in the Creation and Useof Digital Resources . The series aims to provide guidance about applying recognised good practice andstandards to the creation and use of digital resources in the arts and humanities.  Página 4  de 35 The HDS is funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) of the UK Higher Education Funding Councils to collect, catalogue, manage, preserve and encourage the re-use of historical digital resources. The HDS is located in the social science Data Archive at the University of  Essex and is the AHDS service provider for the historical disciplines. The AHDS offers services to thearchaeology, history, performing arts, textual studies and visual arts communities. It consists of fivesubject-based Service Providers ( Archaeology Data Service, History Data Service, Performing Arts Data Service, Oxford Text Archive and Visual Arts Data Service) and a managing Executive. 1.2 Aims and objectives This guide is intended as a reference work for individuals and organisations involved with, or planning, the computerisation of historical source documents. It aims to recommend good practice andstandards that are generic and relevant to a range of data creation situations, from student projectsthrough to large-scale research projects. The guide focuses on the creation of tabular data suitable for use in databases, spreadsheets or statistics packages, however, many of the guidelines are more widelyapplicable. For other approaches to the computerisation of historical source documents see Woollard andDenley 1996; Feldman 1995; Gahan and Hannibal 1997; Kelle 1995; Miles and Huberman 1994; Robinson 1993; and Robinson 1994.The time and resources invested in the creation of digital resources can easily be placed in jeopardy because hardware and software become obsolete, and magnetic media degrade. Long-termpreservation is essential if this investment is to be safeguarded. Digital resources need to be preservedand migrated through changing technologies in order that they will continue to be accessible in the future.However, the extent to which a digital resource can be preserved without significant information loss islargely dependent on decisions taken during the data creation process; this guide seeks to explain how toensure that a digital resource is suitable for preservation and migration.Many historical digital resources potentially have significant and long-term value to theresearch and teaching community. The time and resources invested in their creation can only be fullyrealised if they are suitable for re-use both by the data creator and by others. Such suitability, however, isagain largely dependent on decisions taken during the data creation process; this guide also aims to offer advice about creating digital resources which are suitable for re-use and which will be of long-term valueto the research and teaching community. 1.3 Outline The guide is divided into eight chapters. Chapter 2 offers guidance about effectivelydesigning and managing a data creation project. Chapter 3 focuses on the process of transferringhistorical source documents into digital form and designing a database to hold the digital information; italso encourages data creators to think carefully about the relationship between the sources and thedatabase. Chapter 4 takes a more technical focus and concentrates on the question of data formats andpreservation, explaining how to ensure that a digital resource can be preserved without significantinformation loss. Chapter 5 stresses the importance of thoroughly documenting a data creation project,and describes the elements essential to good documentation. Chapter 6 describes the benefits of archiving data and includes a guide to depositing data with the HDS. Chapter 7 contains a glossary of terms and a bibliography of recommended further reading. CHAPTER 2 : MANAGING DIGITAL RESOURCE CREATION PROJECTS 2.1 Introduction What justifies yet another introduction to project management? A wealth of literature alreadydescribes every imaginable aspect of management, project-related or not. Why re-invent the wheel?The answer is simple: this chapter does not attempt to re-iterate existing literature on projectmanagement. Rather it intends to: ã  Make existing literature and good practice accessible. ã  Link some key management issues, concepts and practice to the specific topic of this guide - thecreation of digital resources from historical documents.
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks