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Allometric models for prediction of above- and belowground biomass of trees in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania

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Allometric models for prediction of above- and belowground biomass of trees in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania
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  Decision support tools for management of miombo woodlands Beslutingsstøtteverktøy til forvaltning av miomboskog   Philosophiae Doctor (PhD) Thesis Wilson Ancelm Mugasha Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management Norwegian University of Life Sciences  Ås 2014 Thesis number 2014:29 ISSN 1503-1667 ISBN 978-82-575-1198-2  II   PhD Supervisors Professor Tron Eid Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management  Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås, Norway Dr. Ole Martin Bollandsås Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management  Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås, Norway Professor Rogers Ernest Malimbwi Department of Forest Mensuration and Management Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) P.O. Box 3013, Morogoro, Tanzania Dr. Eliakimu Zahabu Department of Forest Mensuration and Management Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) P.O. Box 3013, Morogoro, Tanzania PhD Evaluation Committee Dr. Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD) Biens et Services des Ecosystèmes Forestiers Tropicaux TA C-105 / D Campus International de Baillarguet 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France Professor Göran Ståhl Department of Forest Resource Management Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden Professor Erik Næsset Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management  Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU) P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås, Norway  III Acknowledgements I would not have been able to accomplish this thesis without continuous support, contribution and encouragement from people who deserve recognition and commendation. My deepest gratitude goes to Professor Tron Eid who was my main supervisor and provided continuous guidance at all levels with patience throughout my journey. He has been a tremendous mentor to me where his exemplary supervisory skills enabled me to learn the art of writing scientific publications. I would like to extend my sincere appreciation to my co-supervisor Dr. Ole Martin Bollandsås for his critical and very useful comments which significantly enhanced my scientific reasoning. I am also indebted for his valuable guidance on statistical analyses which contributed abundantly to successful accomplishment of this study. For both, their office doors were always open for discussion. My sincere thanks also go to co-supervisors from Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) in Tanzania, Professor Rogers Ernest Malimbwi and Dr. Eliakimu Zahabu whose advice and encouragement coupled with constructive criticism helped me in countless ways through this journey. I would like to extend my thanks to the administration and general staff of the Department of Ecology and Resource Management (INA) for providing me with the necessary facilities, ideal working environment. My gratitude further extends to the  Norwegian State Loan Fund for providing me with stipend during my stay in Norway; and to the Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation (CCIAM) programme in Tanzania through the project titled “Development of biomass estimation models and carbon monitoring in selected vegetation types of Tanzania” for funding my field work. I am also indebted to the Tanzania Forestry Research Institute (TAFORI) and the Department of Forest Mensuration and Management at SUA for allowing me to use data from their permanent sample plots. I am also grateful to Gelson Kyaruzi, Nuru Hussein, Kassimu Amani, Mweta Ernest Malimbwi and Aloyce Mpiri for their diligent efforts during my field work. Thanks also to district forest staffs in Liwale, Sikonge, Babati and Mpanda districts for their valuable support during the field work. I dedicate my thesis to my parents, because without their support and guidance I would not be who I am today. I also dedicate my thesis to my lovely wife, Upendo; my adorable daughter, Amanda; my sister, Rehema; and my young brother Godfrey. I love you all  .    IV Contents Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................. III Abstract ..................................................................................................................................... V Sammendrag ............................................................................................................................. VI Muhtasari ................................................................................................................................. VII List of papers ......................................................................................................................... VIII 1.0. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1 2.0. Research objectives ......................................................................................................... 3 3.0. Decision support tools ..................................................................................................... 4 3.1. Framework ................................................................................................................... 4 3.2. Forest attribute models and forest development models ............................................. 6 3.2.1. Height-diameter relationship models ................................................................... 6 3.2.2. Volume and biomass models ................................................................................ 7 3.2.3. Diameter growth, mortality and recruitment models ........................................... 8 3.3. Matrix model ............................................................................................................... 9 4.0. Data and analyses .......................................................................................................... 11 4.1. Height-diameter relationship models ......................................................................... 11 4.2. Biomass models ......................................................................................................... 11 4.3. Diameter growth, mortality and recruitment models ................................................. 14 4.4. Matrix model ............................................................................................................. 15 5.0. Main findings and discussion ........................................................................................ 18 6.0. Conclusions ................................................................................................................... 26 References ................................................................................................................................ 27 Appendix: Papers I-IV  V Abstract The main objective of this thesis was to develop a variety of models and tools that may be used for decision support in the management of miombo woodlands in Tanzania. Miombo woodlands form a dominating forest type in the country and support the livelihoods of a significant number of people. The forest type, however, face severe challenges related to forest degradation and deforestation, partly as a result of poor management planning and lack of appropriate models and tools to support the planning process. The developed models include height-diameter relationship models for four main forest types (miombo woodlands,  Acacia  savannah, montane and lowland forests) and species groups applicable to most forest areas in the country. Allometric models for trees predicting above- and belowground biomass covering a wide range of conditions in the miombo woodlands of Tanzania were also developed. Finally, models describing forest dynamics, i.e. individual tree diameter growth and mortality models, and area-based recruitment models were developed based on permanent sample plots from miombo woodlands. The development of these models established the necessary infrastructure to construct a simulation tool that can be used for support in decision making for the management of miombo woodlands in Tanzania. The tool was developed by applying a matrix modelling approach, and can be used to simulate different harvesting options and the subsequent long term development of standing volume and biomass for a forest area. Although some uncertainties exist, the models and the tool developed in this thesis are recommended for application in practical management planning of miombo woodlands of Tanzania. In addition, the developed models and tool may provide valuable information that can support decision making related to the emerging carbon credit market mechanism through the Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation» (REDD) scheme.
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