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American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Women Economic Empowerment Through Non Timber Forest Products in Gimbo District, South West Ethiopia

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American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Women Economic Empowerment Through Non Timber Forest Products in Gimbo District, South West Ethiopia
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    American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 2015; 3(3): 99-104 Published online May 6, 2015 (http:!!!"s#ien#epublishin$$%oup"#o&'a'a) doi: 10"1164'"a'a"20150303"16 *++: 2330-53 (P%int); *++: 2330-591 (nline)   Women Economic Empowerment Through Non Timber Forest Products in Gimbo District !outh West Ethiopia Getahun Kassa * , Eskinder Yigezu   .epa%t&ent o /$%i#ultu%al #ono&i#s, Mian-epi nie%sity, Mian ee%i, thiopia Email address: $etah$&ail"#o& (" 7assa), es8oba%yyahoo"#o& (" i$eu) To cite this article: etahun 7assa, s8inde% i$eu" o&en #ono&i# &po!e%&ent h%ou$h on i&be% <o%est P%odu#ts in i&bo .ist%i#t, +outh est thiopia"  American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry " =ol" 3, o" 3, 2015, pp" 99-104" doi: 10"1164'"a'a"20150303"16 Abstract:  *n &any #o&&unities the%e a%e li&ited in#o&e-$ene%atin$ oppo%tunities o% !o&en" <o%tunately, <P a#tiities a%e one o the e! #ash-$ene%atin$ oppo%tunities o% !o&en in &a%$inalied %u%al #o&&unities" ee%theless, in#%easin$  p%essu%e on o%ests and biodie%sity has in#%eased the p%essu%e on %u%al !o&en" e inesti$ated the a#to%s inluen#in$ the in#o&e that !o&en d%ie %o& <Ps #olle#tion" *n addition, ou% %esea%#h also inesti$ated the #ont%ibution o <Ps in#o&e o% the total annual in#o&e o the !o&en and o% %edu#in$ in#o&e ine>uality in i&bo .ist%i#t" !o 8ebeles !e%e sele#ted based on <Ps aailability, leel o o%est e?ploitation a#tiities o the people and nea%ness to %oad" .ata !e%e #olle#ted %o& 120 sele#ted !o&en th%ou$h st%u#tu%ed inte%ie!s, o#us $%oup dis#ussions, &a%8et assess&ents as !ell as ield obse%ation" hou$h  <Ps a##ounted o% 53"@6A o the annual in#o&e o% !o&en, its #ont%ibution is ae#ted by die%ent a#to%s" / &ultiple linea% %e$%ession &odel !as used to identiy a#to%s that ae#t the in#o&e %o& <Ps" ut o ei$ht a%iables in#luded in the %e$%ession, ou% a%iables su#h as non <Ps (othe%) in#o&e, ti&e spent in <Ps #olle#tion, p%o?i&ity to the o%est and distan#e to &a%8et si$nii#antly ae#ted the in#o&e !o&en de%ie %o& <P a#tiities" he #ont%ibution o <Ps in#o&e in %edu#in$ in#o&e ine>uality !as analyed by usin$ ini Boei#ient" Bo&pa%in$ the ini inde? !ith and !ithout <Ps p%odu#tion (in#o&e), the in#o&e dispa%ity lo!e%ed %o& 0"40 to 0"2@ in the in#lusion o <Ps" he%eo%e, e&po!e%in$ !o&en th%ou$h  <P a#tiities #an #%eate si$nii#ant oppo%tunity o% !o&en in te%&s o in#o&e and in %edu#in$ in#o&e ine>uality" hus, poli#y  p%o$%a&s should due attention in i&p%oin$ alte%natie sou%#es o in#o&e o% !o&en in the study a%ea" Keywords:  <Ps, .ete%&inants o o&en *n#o&e, ini Boei#ient 1 !ntroduction o&en oten a#e &any disadanta$es that ha&pe% thei% ability to en$a$e in e#ono&i# a#tiity C1D" / %u%al !o&an spends &ost o he% ti&e ta8in$ #a%e o he% husband, #hild%en, elde%s and othe% &e&be%s o he% a&ily" Bonse>uently, they  be#o&e e#ono&i#ally dependent and ulne%able, edu#ationally ba#8!a%d as !ell as politi#ally and so#ially disadanta$ed" hese in tu%n t%i$$e% o hu$e so#ial, e#ono&i#, and eni%on&ental #osts on so#iety as a !hole and %u%al deelop&ent in pa%ti#ula% C2D" /s !o&en a%e $ene%ally the  poo%est o the poo%, eli&inatin$ so#ial, #ultu%al, politi#al and e#ono&i# dis#%i&ination a$ainst the& is a p%e%e>uisite o e%adi#atin$ poe%ty C3D" he%eo%e, attention has been $ien to  poo% !o&enEs e#ono&i# e&po!e%&ent unie%sally to #atalye deelop&ent eo%ts" #ono&i# e&po!e%&ent in#%eases !o&enEs a##ess to e#ono&i# %esou%#es and oppo%tunities in#ludin$ 'obs, inan#ial se%i#es, p%ope%ty and othe% p%odu#tie assets, s8ills deelop&ent and &a%8et ino%&ation C4D" o&enEs e#ono&i# e&po!e%&ent is unda&ental to enhan#in$ and st%en$thenin$ thei% e#ono&i# and so#ial status" /##o%din$ to Fill C2D %u%al !o&enEs e#ono&i# e&po!e%&ent #an hae a positie i&pa#t on thei% so#ial and politi#al e&po!e%&ent th%ou$h thei% in#%eased %espe#t, status, and sel-#oniden#e and in#%eased de#ision-&a8in$ po!e% in households, #o&&unities, and institutions" *t #an also shit po!e% %elations bet!een !o&en and &en by in#%easin$ !o&enEs #ont%ol oe% household  bud$ets C5D" hus, i $ien %esponsibilities to &ana$in$ #%iti#al household assets and natu%al %esou%#es, !o&en a%e  potential a$ents o #han$e C6D" /%ound the !o%ld, %esilient and %esou%#eul %u%al !o&en #ont%ibute in a &ultitude o !ays th%ou$h die%ent lielihood st%ate$ies to lit thei% a&ilies and #o&&unities out o poe%ty  100 etahun 7assa and s8inde% i$eu: o&en #ono&i# &po!e%&ent h%ou$h on i&be% <o%est P%odu#ts in i&bo .ist%i#t, +outh est thiopia C2D" o&enEs ente%p%ise a#tiities hae 8ey i&po%tan#e in  p%oidin$ ood and in#o&e that enable thei% a&ilies to e?ist C@D" * in#luded in national a##ounts, this in#o&e %ep%esents  bet!een 15 to 50 pe%#ent o national %oss .o&esti# P%odu#ts CD" Bonside%in$ !o&enGs e&ploy&ent, statisti#s sho!s that &any !o&en a%e e&ployed in the ino%&al se#to% and in the non-s8illed a%eas C9D" <o%tunately, <Ps oe% $%eate% oppo%tunities o% !o&en p%odu#e%s in the ino%&al e#ono&y C10D"  <Ps in#lude the p%odu#t beneits o% se%i#es that #o&e %o& a o%est e?#ept ti&be% C11D" hese in#lude plants and  plant &ate%ials used o% ood, uel, sto%a$e and odde%, &edi#ine, #otta$e and !%appin$ &ate%ials, bio#he&i#al, as !ell as ani&als, bi%ds, %eptiles and ishes, o% ood and eathe% C12D" *t #an also be %ee%%ed as all the %esou%#esp%odu#ts that a%e e?t%a#ted %o& o%est e#osyste& and utilied !ithin the household o% &a%8eted o% &eant o% so#ial, #ultu%al o% %eli$ious si$nii#an#e C13D"  <P a#tiities a%e one o the e! #ash-$ene%atin$ oppo%tunities o% !o&en in &a%$inalied %u%al #o&&unities C14D" o&en ind <P a#tiities att%a#tie be#ause o the lo! te#hni#al and inan#ial ent%y %e>ui%e&ents, %eely aailable %esou%#e base and instant #ash in ti&es o need C@D" Hy #olle#tin$ <Ps %o& the o%est, !o&en #ont%ibute si$nii#antly in &eetin$ subsisten#e %e>ui%e&ents and in#%easin$ a&ily in#o&e C15D" o put it die%ently, in#o&e $ene%ated %o& <P a#tiities by !o&en #an add si$nii#antly to thei% householdsE pu%#hasin$ po!e% C16D" he%eo%e, e&po!e%in$ !o&en in the o%est se#to% #an #%eate si$nii#ant deelop&ent oppo%tunities o% the& and $ene%ate i&po%tant spill oe% beneits o% thei% households and #o&&unities C1@D"  <Ps a%e playin$ a 8ey %ole in $ene%atin$ in#o&e and i&p%oin$ the lielihood o %u%al !o&en in thiopia" he &oney ea%ned %o& #olle#tin$, sellin$ o% p%o#essin$ o%est  p%odu#ts has an indispensable #ont%ibution to household in#o&e C1D" Fo!ee%, the a#tual #ont%ibution o <Ps to spe#ii# %u%al households espe#ially o% !o&en is !o%th &entionin$" he%eo%e, ou% %esea%#h ai&ed at usin$ a $ende% anta$e point in %eealin$ the %ole o !o&en in #olle#tin$  <Ps; the #onst%aints dis#ou%a$in$ thei% %ole in <P a#tiities; and esti&atin$ the #ont%ibution o <Ps o% total annual in#o&e and o% &iti$atin$ in#o&e ine>uality in i&bo .ist%i#t" " #esearch $ethodology 2.1. Description of the Study Area he study !as #ondu#ted in i&bo dist%i#t, 7aa one, +outhe%n ations ationalities and PeopleEs Ie$ion (+PI)" *t is ound !ithin the south!este%n plateau o thiopia and 4508& and @258& a% %o& /ddis /baba and Fa!assa %espe#tiely" he a%ea lies !ithin 0@J00E- @J25Eo%th latitude and 35J55E-36J3@East lon$itude" he altitude o the study sites %an$es %o& 1600 to 1900 &"a"s"l" he topo$%aphy is #ha%a#te%ied by sloppin$ and %u$$ed a%eas !ith e%y little  plain land C19D" 2.2. Data Collection i&bo dist%i#t !as sele#ted pu%posiely based on o%est a##essibility and aailability o <Ps" !o 8ebeles !e%e  pu%posiely sele#ted %o& the study a%ea as a %esult o <Ps aailability, leel o o%est e?ploitation a#tiities o the people and nea%ness to %oad" / total o 120 !o&en %espondents !e%e sele#ted %ando&ly usin$ p%opo%tional to sie te#hni>ues based on the nu&be% o e&ale %espondents in 7ebeles usin$ <Ps, so that, all sa&ple units had e>ual #han#es o bein$ sele#ted" e used a &ethod deeloped as in C20D to sele#t the total sa&ple sie %o& the total households" Hased on %ules-o-thu&b, KIe C20DL su$$ested that the &ini&u& nu&be% o %espondents o% ea#h e?planato%y a%iable in a %e$%ession analysis should be 5 %espondents to 1 e?planato%y a%iable" he%eo%e, in this study the%e a%e 10 e?planato%y a%iables and the &ini&u& sa&ple sie should be 50" his is the &ini&u& %e#o&&ended sa&ple sie, but it is possible to sele#t the total sa&ple sie aboe the %e#o&&ended &ini&u& sa&ple sie" <o% the pu%pose o this study both p%i&a%y data and se#onda%y data !e%e #olle#ted" P%i&a%y data !e%e #olle#ted th%ou$h o#us $%oup dis#ussion and inte%ie! usin$ se&i st%u#tu%ed >uestionnai%e" <o% o#us $%oup dis#ussions, !o&en !ho hae $ood e?pe%ien#e in <P a#tiities !e%e sele#ted to dis#uss spe#ii# issues %elated to the pu%pose o the study by o%&in$ s&all $%oups (&e&be%s o @-) !ith ho&o$enous #o&position" +e#onda%y data !e%e also #olle#ted %o& %eleant onal and dist%i#t oi#es in the study a%ea" 2.3. Data Analysis o &eet the ob'e#ties o the study des#%iptie statisti#s, ini Boei#ient and e#ono&et%i# &odel !e%e used based on thei% i&po%tan#e o% analyin$ the >uantitatie data that hae  been #olle#ted %o& p%i&a%y sou%#es" uantitatie data !e%e  p%o#essed usin$ +tatisti#al Pa#8a$e o% +o#ial +#ien#es +P++ 21 and Mi#%osot ?#el 200@" *n#o&e ine>uality !as &easu%ed !ith the use o the ini Boei#ient" he ini #oei#ient   is deined as a %atio !ith alues bet!een 0 and 1" Fe%e, 0 #o%%esponds to pe%e#t in#o&e e>uality (i"e" ee%yone has the sa&e in#o&e) and 1 #o%%esponds to pe%e#t in#o&e ine>uality (i"e" one pe%son has all the in#o&e, !hile ee%yone else has e%o in#o&e)" o ans!e% the >uestion o a#to%s inluen#in$ the %u%al !o&en in#o&e %o& <P p%odu#tion, e#ono&et%i# &odel !as used" <a#to%s inluen#in$ %u%al !o&en in#o&e %o&  <Ps !e%e esti&ated usin$ &ultiple linea% %e$%essions &odel (C21D; C22D)" he total &oneta%y alue o the a%ious types o <Ps #olle#ted by ea#h !o&an pe% yea% is ound to  be the &ost app%op%iate unit o &easu%e&ent to identiy the a#to%s that inluen#e the %u%al !o&en in#o&e %o& <Ps" *n this #ase, in#o&e (&oneta%y alue) de%ied %o& <Ps by ea#h !o&an !as #onside%ed as dependent a%iable" he ollo!in$ e#ono&et%i# &odel !as e&ployed:   /&e%i#an Nou%nal o /$%i#ultu%e and <o%est%y 2015; 3(3): 99-104 101 he%e:  O in#o&e de%ied %o& <Ps;  o O inte%#ept (the alue o  !hen O0)  i O a e#to% o esti&ated #oei#ient o the e?planato%y a%iables and; i O e?planato%y a%iables Q O the sto#hasti# distu%ban#e te%& % #esult and &iscussion 3.1. Household Characteristics  the total %espondents, 95 A !e%e &a%%ied, 2"5A o the& !e%e sin$le and the %e&ainin$ 2"5A o the& !e%e dio%#ed" Fain$ 95A &a%%ied %espondents has a $ood adanta$e in  p%oidin$ inan#ial suppo%t o% husband and #hild%en" Ie$a%din$ thei% %eli$ion, @@"5A o the& !e%e the ollo!e%s o the thiopian %thodo? he!ahido, 16"6@A !e%e P%otestant and the %e&ainin$ 5"3A o the& !e%e ollo!e%s o othe% %eli$ions in the #ount%y" ith %e$a%d to ethni# #o&position o the %espondents, 7aa !as the do&inant $%oup a##ounted o% @9"1@A o the total %espondents, about 16"6@A belon$ed to the Men'a ethni# $%oup and 4"16A !e%e the %e&ainin$ ethni# $%oups o the #ount%y" he uni>ueness in the study a%ea is that the Men'a ethni# &ino%ities #onsists the se#ond la%$est  pe%#enta$e o the o%est use%s in the study a%ea" he Men'a &ino%ities a%e hi$hly dependent on the o%est as a &eans o lielihood" Table 1.  Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Respondents. 'ariables $inimum $a(imum $ean )t &eiation /$e 20 60 33"53 9"34 <a&ily sie 2 9 5"24 1"90 du#ation 0 10 1"69 2"@0 +ou%#e: Fousehold +u%ey (2015) he &ean a$e o the %espondents !as 33"53 yea%s" he la%$est p%opo%tion o the %espondents (94"1@A) lay in the a$e %an$e o 20-50 yea%s" his i&plies the &a'o%ity o the %espondents !e%e a#tie !o%8 o%#es" he &ean a&ily sie o the %espondents !as 5"25" ith %e$a%d to edu#ational attain&ent o the %espondents, the &ean edu#ational attain&ent !as 1"69 $%ades" he &a'o%ity o the %espondents (63"33A) !e%e unable to %ead and !%ite" 3.2. Major NT!s Collected by "o#en he !o&en in the study a%ea e?ploited a%ious <Ps li8e o%est #oee, honey, e%al honey, spi#es (Ba%da&o& and lon$  peppe%), uel !ood, #ha%#oal, ba&boo and &edi#inal plants %o& the o%est" he <Ps !e%e #lassiied based on thei% i&po%tan#e o% #o&&e%#ial as !ell as house use only" /##o%din$ to the ino%&ation $athe%ed th%ou$h o#us $%oup dis#ussion, !o&en #lassiied <Ps li8e o%est #oee, o%est honey and spi#es as i&po%tant <Ps that $ene%ate the& si$nii#ant #ont%ibution o #ash in#o&e" n the othe% hand, the !o&en e?t%a#ted uel !ood, #ha%#oal, ba&boo and &edi#inal  plants o% house-use only" +ou%#e: Fousehold +u%ey (2014) i$ure 1.  Major NTFPs. he i$u%e (<i$u%e 1) sho!s the &a'o%ity o the !o&en ha%ested uel !ood %o& nea% #o&&unal o% state o%ests ee%y day to &eet the daily ene%$y de&and in the household" Bha%#oal   is   anothe% sou%#e o ene%$y that the !o&en e?t%a#ted %o& the o%est" u% indin$ is #onsistent !ith the indin$s o those o C23D !ho %epo%ted !ood uel as the &ost #o&&on sou%#e o <Ps in#o&e o% 6A o households" /nothe% indin$ as in KIe" C24DL %eealed that i%e!ood #onstitutes the la%$est p%opo%tion (59A) o o%est in#o&e" *n ou% indin$, it is ound that o%est #oee, honey and spi#es !e%e the &ost i&po%tant #ash $ene%atin$ <Ps" *n line !ith this, KIe" C25DL %eealed that 33A o households $ene%ate #ash in#o&e by sellin$ o%est #oee" KIe" C1DL also %eealed that the beneits %e#eied %o& bee8eepin$ en#ou%a$e the p%ese%ation o the o%est in +outh est thiopia" 3.3. Contribution of NT!s for "o#en %nco#e o&en in the study a%ea ea%ned in#o&e %o& li&ited sou%#es su#h as a$%i#ultu%e (&ainly #%op p%odu#tion) and o%ests (<Ps)" he%e a%e li&ited e#ono&i# oppo%tunities in the study a%ea !hi#h hinde%ed the !o&en %o& die%siyin$ thei% sou%#es o in#o&e" /s a %esult, the !o&en liin$ at the  p%o?i&ity o the natu%al o%est depend hi$hly on the o%est to e?t%a#t &any <Ps" Table 2.  Sources and Proportion of omen !ncome.   +o )ources !ncome ercentage 1" /$%i#ultu%e (non <Ps) 1,340"50 H 46"24A 2" <Ps 1,55"@ H 53"@6A otal 2,99"2 H 100A +ou%#e: household su%ey (2014)  <Ps p%odu#tion !as the &ain sou%#e o in#o&e (53"@6A) o% the !o&en in the study a%ea" Bonsistent !ith ou% indin$s, a study #ondu#ted in i$e%ia %eealed that the &a'o% sou%#e o in#o&e to the household is the in#o&e %o& <Ps C26D" /s in KIe" C2@DL in +outhe%n thiopia o%est p%odu#ts #onstitute an i&po%tant pa%t o the household in#o&e po%tolio #ont%ibutin$ 34A o total pe% #apita in#o&e" KIe" C23DL also suppo%ted that  <Ps a##ount o% about one thi%d o total household in#o&e"    102 etahun 7assa and s8inde% i$eu: o&en #ono&i# &po!e%&ent h%ou$h on i&be% <o%est P%odu#ts in i&bo .ist%i#t, +outh est thiopia 3.&. 'ole of NT!s %nco#e in 'educin$ %nco#e %ne(uality he i$u%es (<i$u%e 2 R 3) sho! the i&pa#t o <Ps in#o&e on in#o&e ine>uality" So%en #u%es !ith the data o% householdsE in#o&e in#ludin$ o% e?#ludin$ sho! that addition o <Ps in#o&e to total in#o&e %edu#es the depa%tu%e o the #u%e %o& the line o e>ual dist%ibution" i$ure 2.  "oren# Cur$e %ithout NTFPs !ncome.  i$ure 3.  "oren# Cur$e %ith the inclusion of NTFPs !ncome.   he ini inde? o% othe% in#o&es (non <Ps in#o&e) is 0"40" his inde? is hi$he% than the national alue o ini inde? (0"34) set by o%ld Han8 o% the yea% 2014 C2D" Fo!ee%, !hen in#o&e %o& <Ps !as in#luded in the total annual in#o&e o% the !o&en, the ini inde? !as #al#ulated at 0"2@" Bo&pa%in$ the ini inde? !ith and !ithout <Ps  p%odu#tion (in#o&e), the dispa%ity !as lo!e%ed by a #oei#ient o 0"13 in the in#lusion o <Ps" he %esult sho!s  <Ps play $%eate% %ole in %edu#in$ in#o&e ine>uality a&on$ !o&en in the study a%ea" Table 3.  &ini Coefficient for the t%o income sources.   +o -A)E) G!+! !+&E. /E#-E+TAGE0 G!+! -E22!-!E+T 1" the% in#o&e 39"55A 0"40 2" otal in#o&e 2@"05A 0"2@ Bhan$e in ini inde? 12"5A 0"13 thiopian ational ini in 2014 is 33"6A (H*, 2014) *n line !ith ou% indin$, in +outhe%n thiopia <Ps in#o&e %o& $u& and %esin #ont%ibuted to the %edu#tion o the &easu%ed in#o&e ine>uality %o& 0"4@ to 0"22 C29D" /nothe% indin$ in Hu%8ina <aso %eealed that i o%est (<Ps and  <Ps) sou%#es o in#o&e a%e e?#luded %o& analysis, the esti&ated ini #oei#ient in#%eases %o& 0"4@ to 0"9 !hi#h sho!s that addition o o%est in#o&e %edu#es &easu%ed in#o&e ine>uality o 42A C30D" *n KIe" C2@DL it is indi#ated that the in#%ease in ini #oei#ient be#o&es hi$hest !hen o%est in#o&e is e?#luded (0"45)" u% study also #on#u%s !ith the indin$ in KIe" C24DL !hi#h indi#ated that in#o&e ine>uality is 0"2 !hen o%est in#o&es a%e in#luded, but the #oei#ient %ises to 0"41 !hen o%est in#o&es a%e e?#luded" 3.). Deter#inants of %nco#e fro# NT!s he &ultiple linea% %e$%ession analysis !as #a%%ied out to identiy the a#to%s inluen#in$ %u%al !o&en in#o&e %o&  <Ps" he < test sho!s that the &odel is si$nii#ant at less o% e>ual to 0"000A p%obability leel" he I  2  alue o 0"60@ indi#ates the e?planato%y po!e% o the &odel" hus, 60"@A o the a%iation in the dependent a%iable !as e?plained by the %e$%ession" ?planato%y a%iables su#h as edu#ational attain&ent o the %espondents (edu#), the e?pe%ien#e o %u%al !o&en in #olle#tin$ the <Ps (e?pe%ie), a&ily sie (<sie) and ti&e spent in the o%est (spent) e?hibited positie %elation to in#o&e de%ied %o& <Ps" Hut, a$e o the %espondents (/), othe% in#o&e o the %espondents (in#o&e),  p%o?i&ity to the o%est (.*+<I+) and distan#e to the &a%8et (.*+M/I7) sho!ed ne$atie %elation to in#o&e de%ied %o& <Ps" Fo!ee%, out o the total a%iables, ou% !e%e statisti#ally si$nii#ant at 10, 5 and 1A p%obability leel" hese !e%e othe% (non <Ps) in#o&e, ti&e spent in the o%est, p%o?i&ity to the o%est and distan#e to the &a%8et %o& the %esiden#e o %espondents" Table &.  Factors !nfluencing omen !ncome from NTFPs.   'ariables -oe33icients )td Error t statistics signi3icance Bonstant 23@0"@9 5@@"@4 4"10 "00 /$e -11"6@ 16"09 -"@3 "4@ du#ation 3"15 36"05 1"06 "29 in#o&e -"14 "06 -2"26 "03TT <a&sie 13"09 52"13 "25 "0 ?pe%ien#e 9"9 31"59 "32 "@5 spent 405"3@ 62"32 6"50 "00TTT Po%est -234@"9 3@2"92 -6"30 "00TTT .&a%8et -215"9 116"55 -1"5 "0@T TTT, TT, and T %ee% to si$nii#an#e at less than 1A, 5A, and 10A p%obability leels, .ependent =a%iable: in#o&e %o& <Ps, O120, I-+>ua%eO0"634, /d'usted I2O0"60@, <O24"012 /s p%edi#ted, p%o?i&ity to the o%est ne$atiely ae#ted the in#o&e %o& <Ps at less than 1A si$nii#an#e leel" he%eo%e, those %esidin$ a% a!ay %o& the o%est a%e less inte%ested in <P a#tiities be#ause o hi$he% t%ansa#tion #ost" *n line !ith ou% indin$, a study #ondu#ted in Hon$a <o%est %eealed that the ne$atie and si$nii#ant ee#t o distan#e to o%est on in#o&e %o& <Ps !as due to the   /&e%i#an Nou%nal o /$%i#ultu%e and <o%est%y 2015; 3(3): 99-104 103 in#%ease in #ost o p%odu#tion C25D" /nothe% study #ondu#ted in i$e%ia noted that the ne$atie asso#iation bet!een in#o&e %o& <Ps and distan#e to the o%est &ay %esults %o& la%$e t%anspo%tation #ost, i la%$e >uantities o <Ps a%e $athe%ed C26D" /nothe% indin$ also noted that the ne$atie asso#iation  bet!een distan#es o house %o& o%est !ith sha%e o o%est in#o&e $ies an idea that people nea%by o%est had &o%e a##ess to o%est, easy to %ea#h the%e and !e%e &o%e beneited C31D" / %esea%#h #ondu#ted in i$e%ia #on#luded that as one $ets a%the% a!ay %o& the o%est a%ea, shehe tends to use less o the o%est%y %esou%#e C32D" *n ou% study, ti&e spent in the o%est positiely ae#ted the in#o&e %o& <Ps at less than 1A si$nii#ant leel" his &eans those indiiduals !ho spent &o%e ti&e in the o%est #olle#t &o%e >uantity o <Ps" o&en deote thei% ti&e in  <Ps #olle#tion i the %etu%n they ea%n %o& it is att%a#tie" he%eo%e, the &o%e ti&e spent in the o%est, the hi$he% is the in#o&e !o&en d%ie %o& <Ps" the% in#o&e (non <Ps in#o&e) !as anothe% a%iable ound to be ne$atiely asso#iated !ith <Ps in#o&e" he ne$atie asso#iation bet!een othe% in#o&e and <Ps in#o&e indi#ates i !o&en %e#eie &o%e in#o&e %o& othe% a#tiities, they !ill be less %eliant on <Ps in#o&e" he%eo%e, the hi$he% in#o&e !o&en d%ie %o& othe% sou%#es; they !ill be less att%a#ted to <Ps" *n line !ith ou% indin$, KIe" C33DL %eealed that ne$atie asso#iation bet!een #ash in#o&e pe% #apita and the sha%e o in#o&e $ene%ated by  <Ps" his happens be#ause o lo! in#o&e %o& othe% sou%#es, people hae to #olle#t #o&&e%#ial <Ps to in#%ease thei% household in#o&e C34D" /nothe% i&po%tant a%iable that si$nii#antly ae#ted !o&en in#o&e %o& <Ps is distan#e to &a%8et" e ound a ne$atie asso#iation bet!een distan#e to &a%8et %o& the %esiden#e o %espondents and <Ps in#o&e at less than 10A si$nii#an#e leel" his &eans lon$e% distan#e dis#ou%a$es !o&en %o& bein$ en$a$ed in <P a#tiities due to hi$h t%ansa#tion #osts" Bonsistent !ith ou% indin$, KIe" C25DL and KIe" C26DL %eealed that distan#e %o& o%est to point o sale has a ne$atie and si$nii#ant ee#t on <Ps in#o&e !hi#h &ay %esults %o& la%$e t%anspo%tation #ost" *n KIe" C23DL it is #on#luded that the a%the% a!ay a household is %o& the &a%8et, the lo!e% the li8elihood to pa%ti#ipate in  <Ps and also the less dependent a household is on in#o&e %o& <Ps" 3.*. Conclusions and !olicy %#plications he &ain sou%#e o in#o&e o% !o&en in the study a%ea #onsist a$%i#ultu%e (&ainly #%op p%odu#tion) and <P a#tiities" ith su#h li&ited in#o&e sou%#es, <Ps played an i&po%tant %ole in #ont%ibutin$ to !o&en in#o&e (53"@6A) and &iti$atin$ in#o&e ine>uality" Bo&pa%in$ the ini inde? !ith and !ithout <Ps p%odu#tion (in#o&e), the in#o&e dispa%ity lo!e%ed %o& 0"40 to 0"2@ in the in#lusion o <Ps" Fo!ee%, the #ont%ibution o <Ps in#o&e o% !o&en is inluen#ed by see%al a#to%s" i&e spent in <Ps #olle#tion,  p%o?i&ity to the o%est, non <Ps in#o&e and distan#e to &a%8et si$nii#antly inluen#ed the in#o&e !o&en de%ie %o& <P a#tiities" he%eo%e, e&po!e%in$ !o&en th%ou$h  <P a#tiities #an #%eate si$nii#ant oppo%tunity o% !o&en in te%&s o in#o&e $ene%atin$ and in %edu#in$ in#o&e ine>uality i attention is due o% the a#to%s that ae#t <Ps in#o&e in the study a%ea" Hased on the indin$s o ou% study, the ollo!in$ poli#y di%e#tions a%e %e#o&&ended;    *n#o&e de%ied %o& <Ps e?t%a#tion #ont%ibuted si$nii#antly to the annual in#o&e o sa&pled !o&en in the study a%ea" he%eo%e, !o&en e#ono&i# e&po!e%&ent poli#ies should $ie e&phasie to the i&po%tan#e o <Ps by #onside%in$ it as alte%natie in#o&e $ene%atin$ sou%#e o% %u%al !o&en due to its inte%national %e#o$nition and useulness o <Ps"    +e#ond, in te%&s o &iti$atin$ in#o&e ine>uality, the %esult su$$ested that in#o&e ine>uality #an be %edu#ed th%ou$h the in#lusion o <Ps in#o&e" he%eo%e, ine>uality should be %edu#ed th%ou$h poli#y p%o$%a&s that i&p%oe alte%natie sou%#es o in#o&e o% !o&en in the study a%ea"    .istan#e to &a%8et ae#ted the in#o&e that !o&en de%ie %o& <Ps" his unde%s#o%es the i&po%tan#e o i&p%oin$ a##ess to &a%8et in o%de% to en#ou%a$e %u%al !o&en to die%siy into <P business a#tiities and in#%ease thei% in#o&e"    <inally, distan#e to the o%est dis#ou%a$ed the !o&en in the study a%ea %o& bein$ en$a$ed in <P a#tiities" he%eo%e, the !o&en should be en#ou%a$ed to do&esti#ate &ino% o%est p%odu#ts in thei% ba#8ya%ds outside the #o&&unity o%est a%ea" Acknowledgments his %esea%#h is the %esult o a su##essul #ollabo%atie eo%t by &any indiiduals and !e !ould li8e to pay t%ibute to all indiiduals !ho #ont%ibuted to this !o%8" e a%e hi$hly indebted to Hela#he! /dulo, Muluale& and 7ase#h o% thei% suppo%t !hile #olle#tin$ the data" e !ould also li8e to than8 Mian-epi nie%sity o% p%oidin$ us the ne#essa%y inan#ial suppo%t to #ondu#t ou% !o%8" u% spe#ial app%e#iation $oes to i&bo .ist%i#t /$%i#ultu%al oi#e o% the #oope%ation to #ondu#t ou% %esea%#h in the a%ea" Sastly, !e !ould li8e to than8 .%" a%ed He%hanu" #e3erences C1D   Ba%% M, (200)" ende% and non-ti&be% o%est p%odu#ts: P%o&otin$ ood se#u%ity and e#ono&i# e&po!e%&ent"   *nte%national <und o% /$%i#ultu%al .eelop&ent (*</.), *taly"   C2D   Fill B, (2011)" nablin$ Iu%al o&enEs #ono&i# &po!e%&ent: *nstitutions, ppo%tunities, and Pa%ti#ipation" C3D   *nte%national Bone%en#e on Population and .eelop&ent (*BP.), 1994" P%o$%a& o /#tion C4D   B., (2012)" P%o&otin$ P%o-Poo% %o!th: he Iole o &po!e%&ent" he B. ./B et!o%8 on ende% >uality (.I)
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