Industry

An overview of industrial X-ray computed tomography

Description
An overview of industrial X-ray computed tomography
Categories
Published
of 63
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
    NPL REPORT ENG 32   An overview of industrial X-ray computed tomography Sun W, Brown S B and Leach R K JANUARY 2012      NPL Report ENG 32 i An overview of industrial X-ray computed tomography Sun W, Brown S B and Leach R K Engineering Measurement Division ABSTRACT Driven by the need for quality control of complex three-dimensional engineering components, and enabled by progress in medical imaging and consumer graphics processing, X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has been increasingly used for industrial inspection in recent years. A review of the recent development of industrial XCT systems in the context of traceable dimensional metrology is presented. The market trends of industrial XCT systems are briefly reviewed. Progress towards standards and methods for XCT calibration and verification are studied in detail. The report also covers the recent development of both hardware and software and discusses the challenges regarding systematic errors. Commercial systems are summarised to establish the capability available to the industrial user. Finally, what will be required to develop XCT technology in the field of dimensional metrology is considered.  NPL Report ENG 32 ii    Queen’s Prin ter and Controller of HMSO, 2012 ISSN 1754-2987 National Physical Laboratory Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW Extracts from this report may be reproduced provided the source is acknowledged and the extract is not taken out of context. Approved on behalf of NPLML by Dr A J Lewis, Assistant Knowledge Leader.  NPL Report ENG 32 iii CONTENTS 1   INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 1   1.1   THE X - RAY SPECTRUM AND XCT SYSTEMS  .............................................................................. 2   1.2   CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL XCT SYSTEMS  ...................................................................... 3   1.3   ADVANTAGES OF XCT  .............................................................................................................. 4   1.4   ANALYSIS AND INSPECTION  ..................................................................................................... 5   2   INDUSTRIAL OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................ 6   2.1   CURRENT INDUSTRIAL TRENDS  ................................................................................................ 6   2.2   EMERGING MARKETS  ............................................................................................................... 7   2.2.1   Food inspection ............................................................................................................... 7    2.2.2   Security ............................................................................................................................ 7    2.2.3    Microelectronics .............................................................................................................. 7    2.3   FUTURE MARKETS  .................................................................................................................... 7   2.3.1    New material technologies .............................................................................................. 7    2.3.2    Military hardware ........................................................................................................... 7    2.3.3    Infrastructure ................................................................................................................... 8    2.3.4    Industrial versus medical systems ................................................................................... 8    2.3.5    Aerospace demands ......................................................................................................... 8    2.3.6     Electronics demands ........................................................................................................ 9   3   XCT HARDWARE ..................................................................................................................... 10   3.1   X- RAY SOURCE  ...................................................................................................................... 10   3.2   X - RAY DETECTORS  ................................................................................................................. 12   3.3   PROPERTIES OF XCT DETECTORS  ............................................................................................ 14   3.4   PC HARDWARE  ....................................................................................................................... 16   3.5   SHIELDING  ............................................................................................................................. 17   3.6   COOLING SYSTEM ................................................................................................................... 17   4   DATA PROCESSING ................................................................................................................. 18   4.1   RECONSTRUCTION OF CONE - BEAM XCT  ................................................................................. 20   4.2   COMMERCIAL VISUALISATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES ........................................................... 22   4.3   FREEWARE  ............................................................................................................................. 22   5   SYSTEMATIC ERRORS IN XCT ............................................................................................ 24   5.1   BEAM DRIFT  ........................................................................................................................... 24   5.2   RING ARTEFACTS  ................................................................................................................... 24   5.3   BEAM HARDENING  ................................................................................................................. 26   5.4   PARTIAL VOLUME ARTEFACTS  ............................................................................................... 28   5.5   O THER SYSTEMATIC ERRORS  ................................................................................................. 29   6   XCT SYSTEM CALIBRATION AND VERIFICATION ....................................................... 30   6.1   XCT SYSTEM CALIBRATION  .................................................................................................... 30   6.2   XCT SYSTEM VERIFICATION  ................................................................................................... 31   6.3   INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR XCT TECHNOLOGY  .......................................................... 31   6.4   SYSTEM CAPABILITIES  ........................................................................................................... 32   6.4.1   Spatial resolution .......................................................................................................... 33   6.4.2    Artefacts......................................................................................................................... 33   6.4.3   Statistical noise .............................................................................................................. 34   6.5   REFERENCE OBJECTS  .............................................................................................................. 34   6.5.1   PTB ................................................................................................................................ 34   6.5.2    Zeiss ............................................................................................................................... 35   6.5.3    International comparison of micro-CMM and XCT systems ......................................... 36   
Search
Similar documents
View more...
Tags
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks