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Analysis of Low Cost Residential Housing Development for the Urban Poor-A Case Study of Kibera and Mathare Slums in Nairobi

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  Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 ! aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.%( No.1)( 21* 1 Analysis of Low Cost Residential Housing Development for the Urban Poor: A Case Study of ibera and !athare Slums in airobi +mos s. ,wangangi !orresponding +utor# roduction ,anager( E S /actor0( National ousing orporation( Email a.mwangangi30a ristine N. Simi0u ! D# Senior 4ecturer( Scool of 5usiness and ublic ,anagement( 6+ niversit0 .o 5o8 %)$$-2( Nairobi( 6en0a. Email Abstra#t  Developing trend of urbani:ation due to industriali:ation worldwide caused overwelming strain to ousing te urban e8treme-poor people. +ffordabilit0 posed te main ousing callenge in 6en0a. ;is precipitated into te  proliferation of slums in all urban areas and was most severe in Nairobi were te appalling slum settlements were densel0 populated. ;e researc was focused on igligting te unattended group of urban dwellers( te urban poor( wo re<uired decent( ade<uate and affordable ousing and related services witin teir means. ;e stud0 directed <uestionnaires to collect data for anal0sis. Descriptive statistics and factor anal0sis were used to anal0:e te data. ;e stud0 establised tat slum residents were overcrowded in tin0 rooms witin filt0 neigboroods devoid of basic social amenities. ;e stud0 findings suggest tat man0 residents ad montl0 ouseold income of appro8imatel0 1( 6en0a Sillings!6S# and could onl0 rent ouses witin 6S1( and ence could not afford to live in decent neigboroods. ;e stud0 noted tat te interventions b0 te government to address te ousing situation were insignificant and muc more effort was re<uired to improve te living condition of slums in te wa9e of te fast growing urban population and widespread of urban povert0  b0 provision and facilitation of basic services and decent low cost ousing units. eywords: Decent ousing( rban oor( /actor +nal0sis. $%& 'ntrodu#tion ;e world=s population living in cities as been on an upward trend since industrial revolution in 1>s. In 1>( 1*? of te world=s population lived in cities( 1>%@ A?( 1>$@ A>? and in 2*@ *$? !N( 2*#. In 2$( alf of te world population lived in urban areas and will rise to over )? b0 2A !N report( 2$#. +ccording to te population reference bureau in S+( it is e8pected tat 7? of te world population will be urban b0 2% and tat most urban growt will occur in less developed countries !&bure( 21A#. ;is situation as given rise to immense callenges on residential ousing( particularl0 to te urban poor. +ccording to N- +5I;+; !2$#( +frica is urbani:ing rapidl0 wit A$.7? of its population living in cities in 27 and is now at %?. 50 te 0ear 2A( more +fricans( about 1 billion people will be living in cities tan in te rural areas. East +frican region is te least urbani:ed in +frica wit Nort +frica( Sout +frica and Best +frica recording muc iger urban populations. ;is swift in urban growt stretces te demand for urban residential ousing( urban services and urban livelioods. 50 te 0ear 2A( more tan )? of 6en0ans will be living in cities and towns. In 6en0a( te estimated current residential urban ousing needs are over 1%( units per 0ear. It is estimated tat te current  production of new residential ousing in 6en0an urban areas is appro8imatel0 A( units annuall0( wic is onl0 2? of te demand( leaving a uge sortfall !,inistr0 of ousing( 2*@ 6en0a 'ision 2A( 27 and N abitat( 21A#. ;is situation as given rise to musrooming of informal settlements( construction of unautori:ed e8tensions in e8isting residential estates and overcrowding !N-abitat( 2A#. In 6en0an urban settlements( %> ? of ouseolds live in one roomed dwelling units !Borld 5an9( 2)#. N-abitat launced in 2$( te articipator0 Slum pgrading rogramme ! S # to improve te living conditions in towns and cities and positivel0 contribute to 7 t  ,illennium Development Coal( ;arget 11. ;e 7 t  ,illennium Development Coal aims to acieve environmental sustainabilit0 wit target 11 geared to acieve a significant improvement in te lives of at least 1 million slum dwellers worldwide and deter formation of new slums b0 te 0ear 22 !nited Nations ,illennium Development Coals( 2#. urrentl0( tere are A$ countries !including 6en0a# and )A cities across +frica( aribbean and acific states !+ #  participating in te programme !N-+5I;+;( 212#. In 6en0a( te target translates to improving te livelioods of at least 1.) million ouseolds living in slums b0 te 0ear 22 wic would be accomplised at a cost of about  11 billion or 6s. >A% billion !,inistr0 of ousing( 2)#.  Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 ! aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.%( No.1)( 21* 2 ;e N-+5I;+; and te Borld 5an9 cannot entirel0 solve te problem of slums( but simpl0 elps to fi8 te problems posed b0 current slums. ;oda0( tere are more tan one billion slum dwellers in te world and te number is e8pected to rise to two billion b0 te 0ear 2A. In te developing world( one out of ever0 tree people living in cities lives in a slum !ities alliance( 212 and Borld 5an9( 211#. Slums commonl0 provide low cost ousing to low income people owing to te low <ualit0 of ouses and te lac9 of basic services@ clean water( sanitation( access roads( electricit0 and social amenities. ;e0 are igl0 e8posed to te ris9 of eviction and demolition. >2 percent of slum dwellers in 6en0a are rent-pa0ing tenants. ;e average montl0 rent in Nairobi slums is about 6s. 7> !wic is e<uivalent to SD > at te current e8cange rate#( against an average montl0 income of 6s. 2(77) !wic is e<uivalent to SD A7# !Borld 5an9( 2)#. ;e residents of 6en0an slums pa0 1 times more for water tan residents of wealt0 neigboroods connected to te metered municipal water s0stem and in times of scarcit0( it is A to * times more !Neuwirt( 2%#. ;ere is onl0 1 toilet for ever0 % people in te slums of Nairobi and people ave to use te wrap and trow= metod of getting rid of teir faeces !New internationalist( 2)#. &ver %? of urban dwellers in 6en0a live in informal settlements tat lac9 ade<uate selter !Borld 5an9( 2$#. ,ost of te public ousing estates are dilapidated and e<uall0 compare to slums. ousing prices are e8cessivel0 ig and unaffordable for te growing urban population and terefore man0 are forced to live in overcrowded and unsafe informal settlements( witout access to drin9ing water( sanitation and oter basic services and amenities !Borld 5an9( 2)#. ;e biggest slums in 6en0a are in Nairobi and include( in a descending order 6ibera( ,atare valle0( ,u9uru 6wa NFenga( 6orogoco( Sinai( and ,aFengo !N abitat( 2>#. (%& Problem statement 6imani !21A# found tat te annual demand for urban residential ousing currentl0 at 1%( units against a meager suppl0 of A( units leaves a uge deficit and investment space for real estate developers as suppl0 continues to lag te population growt. In 212( te ten ousing ,inister( said tat a surve0 carried b0 te ministr0 te same 0ear revealed doubling of te national demand for ousing and a ig growt of informal settlements due to sortage of decent and affordable omes. uc:erme0er !2$# finds tat witin Nairobi=s low income ousing mar9et( public ousing stoc9  pla0s no regulating role because entitlement to units is troug ineritance of occupational rigts and political  patronage. +s a conse<uence( units are rented far below te mar9et rates to middle class ouseolds. Due to lac9 of access to land and public ousing( te poor ave no option but to resort to informal ousing mar9et. ;e d0namics of tis mar9et indicate and increase te power imbalances between slum dwellers on one and and landlords and public officials on te oter. ublic officials ave a strong incentive to reward teir followers b0 illegall0 allocating land in an area designated for upgrading. /or e8ample( in 6iambiu slum( wic in 1>>* was autori:ed to be upgraded( public officials illegall0 sold te land to developers to suc an e8tent tat upgrading  became impossible !&GE( 2)#. ;e 6en0an Covernment and donors do not recogni:e te political nature of slum upgrading and te imbalances based on income ine<ualit0. ;is is suggested b0 te design of low income ousing to middle class standards as evident in 6ENS 6ibera - Soweto pilot proFect !uc:erme0er( 2$#. rocedures for proper allocation of land are b0-passed to benefit a small group of individuals at te e8pense of te public. ;e distorted allocation of land as translated into about )? of Nairobi=s population currentl0 living in informal settlements  but occup0ing onl0 about %? of te residential area !;ransparenc0 International( 2A#. Covernment and donor efforts ave failed to target te poor of te poorest. Gesidential ouse upgrading in slums and public ousing and site and service scemes ave failed largel0 because te0 did not involve te residents in planning( design and implementation and ave mainl0 depended on e8perts wose  priorities are different from tose of te poor residents( ence te units end up being too e8pensive for te poor residents to afford !NFati( 211#. &wing to te growt of overcrowded and degenerated urban residences( tere as been deliberate effort b0 te Covernment and te private sector to improve te living conditions of te urban poor b0 providing  better ouses. ;is as been acieved troug upgrading and site and service scemes. ;ese measures ave led to development of decent ouses for te middle income wic are not affordable to te urban poor. ;is situation forced te urban poor to encroac on oter open fields to create even severe illegal settlements. ;is researc sougt to e8amine wa0s and means of improving access to decent low cost ousing for te urban poor. )%& *b+e#tives ;e general obFective of tis researc was to establis te ousing needs of te urban poor in a bid to find a sustainable solution to provision of decent low cost ousing for te e8tremel0 poor urban dwellers. 3. 1 Specific objectives ;e specific obFectives of tis stud0 are to  Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 ! aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.%( No.1)( 21* A !i#   ;o identif0 te availabilit0 of low cost residential ousing to te urban poor !ii#   ;o determine te affordabilit0 of decent low cost residential ousing to te urban poor !iii#   ;o establis te effectiveness of te government=s low cost ousing scemes in improving access to decent( low cost ousing for te urban poor. ,%& !ethodology   4.1 Research design Descriptive researc design was used in tis stud0 to describe te prevailing residential ousing situation in poor urban settlements. ;is was acieved troug surve0 and observations. Data was obtained troug te use of a structured <uestionnaire distributed randoml0 among respondents in 6ibera and ,atare slums to collect  primar0 data. ase stud0 of 6ibera and ,atare *+ slum upgrading pilot programmes was done to obtain information on weter te residents in te upgraded ouses were genuine e8tremel0 poor people. Simple random sampling was used in te selection of respondents. ;is ensured tat an0 member of te population ad an e<ual cance of inclusion in te sample. Secondar0 data was obtained from informational documents from te ,inistr0 of ousing( N-abitat and oter sources wic enabled te stud0 to be ade<uatel0 addressed. ;e stud0 gatered information about ousing te urban poor b0 visiting low income ousing scemes suc as te government ousing scemes for te low income ouseolds at 6ibera and ,atare *+. ;e researcer terefore interviewed slum residents in 6ibera and ,atare slums. 4.2 Target population ;e target population for tis researc was te urban poor people living in 6ibera and ,atare slums. ;ese were over 1 million residents@ over )( people in 6ibera and over *( people in ,atare slums !N abitat( 21A#. 4.3 Sampling and sampling procedure 6ibera and ,atare slums are ome to over 1 million residents !N abitat( 21A#. ;is population si:e of 1 million residents was sampled randoml0 to a sample si:e of 12 respondents( based on publised tables tat guide in determining sample si:es as defined b0 Israel !2># wic re<uires tat for a population of over 1 million( te sample si:e sould be at least 1 respondents. ) respondents were selected in 6ibera and ) respondents in ,atare so as to give e<ual attention to te ousing situation in bot slums to enable fair inference to be drawn on te ousing situation in poor urban residences. Gespondents were pic9ed b0 simple random sampling b0 moving troug te entire slum and randoml0 pic9ing a ouse in an evenl0 dispersed manner to ensure tat te general ousing situation in te wole slum is captured. 4.4 Data collection methods rimar0 data was collected troug a surve0 b0 te use of te following researc instruments *.*.1 Huestionnaire &pen and close ended <uestions were prepared in order to capture effectivel0 te relevant information from poor urban residents concerning ousing. ;e <uestionnaire was tested troug a pilot stud0 to reveal te wea9nesses for correction. ;en te <uestionnaire was self administered during te surve0 in 6ibera and ,atare slums to cater for illiterate and bus0 cases and also to save on time tat would ave been lost in coming bac9 for te <uestionnaire and also reduced te cances of non response. + total of 12 respondents were interviewed. *.*.2 &bservation 'isits were made b0 te researcer to 6ibera and ,atare *+ slum upgrading pilot programmes. &ter low cost residential ouses and construction sites were identified in te course of te researc and were visited( including ,u9uru 6wa NFenga slums in Nairobi Sout 5 estate and te National ousing orporation rentals along 6aranFa road in 6ibera. 6ibera and ,atare valle0 slums were visited to collect data on te realit0 of urban poor residences. 4.5 Data collection procedure ;e respondents in 6ibera and ,atare slums were selected troug simple random sampling of te population were 12 ouseolds were pic9ed. Information was obtained from te respondents wit te guidance of a self administered <uestionnaire. 4. Data anal!sis ;e data collected was anal0:ed using Statistical ac9age for Social Sciences !S SS# software. Descriptive anal0sis was performed b0 use of percentage response to all te *A variables. Econometric anal0sis was b0 use of factor anal0sis to determine 9e0 factors tat would unloc9 indrance to low cost residential ousing( cross tabulation and correlations to describe te ousing situation <uantitativel0. 5ot te descriptive and econometric anal0ses were used to anal0:e availabilit0( affordabilit0 and te impact of te government=s intervention in  provision of affordable ousing. ;ables and carts were used in data presentation.  Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development ISSN 2222-17 ! aper# ISSN 2222-2$%% !&nline# 'ol.%( No.1)( 21* * -%& Results 5.1 eneral information %.1.1 Gesponse rate Huestionnaires were presented to 12 respondents for data collection b0 self administration. owever( onl0 1 <uestionnaires were successfull0 completed( and 2 <uestionnaires did not gater substantial data due to unwillingness of te respondents( ence response rate of $A.AA? was recorded. %.1.2 'alidit0 of te findings 'alidit0 is te degree to wic te test is trul0 measuring wat was intended. sing principal component anal0sis ! +#( 6aiser-,e0er-&l9in measure !6,&# was underta9en to ascertain te sampling ade<uac0. /ield !2># recommends 6,& values greater tan .% as acceptable. /or tese data( te value was .%A2 as sown in ;able 1( wic demonstrates confidence tat factor anal0sis is appropriate for tese data. ;e results in ;able 1 sowed p. wic is igl0 significant. ;ese results impl0 tat te variables in te stud0 are valid for factor anal0sis. Geliabilit0 of a researc means te e8tent to wic te test can 0ield te same results if repeated. *1 variables( wic eliminated te rental ownersip variable and te availabilit0 of social ousing scemes variable wic were outliers in te anal0sis( were considered for rincipal omponent +nal0sis ! +# b0 'arima8 wit 6aiser Normali:ation metod to give te rotated component matri8. Negative factors and tose below .% were ignored to remain wit 2* variables( wic were considered for reliabilit0 test to give te results presented in ;able 2. ;e results from te reliabilit0 test gave ronbac=s +lpa of .%2( wic is an acceptable value for a researc instrument( according to /ield !2># and Joanes !1>>$#. 5.2 Descriptive anal!sis %.2.1 Demograpics anal0sis /rom ;able A( te results from te stud0 suggest tat( most of te respondents were married women !71?# aged  between *) to ) 0ears !)$?# wo live wit teir spouses and 0oung cildren. ,aForit0 of te men( being te  breadwinners of te families( were out in searc of mone0 to fend for teir families and in most instances would not be found in te ouse for interview. In most of te ouseolds( 7)?( tere was at least one emplo0ed person( mainl0 te men( wile 2*? of te ouseolds reported to ave no one in emplo0ment in te ouseold and depended on uncertain casual wor9s tat te0 could find. oncerning education levels( te stud0 found tat maForit0 of te respondents ad primar0 education and eiter full0 or partiall0 completed secondar0 education and ad ta9en additional artisan course. %? of te respondents reported to ave no formal education. ;ese results suggest relativel0 low education levels among te slum dwellers and ence lower access to emplo0ment opportunities. Indeed( most slum residents were noted to be engaged in low income informal Fobs wit >7? reported to ave montl0 ouseold income of between 1( to A( 6en0a silling !6S#( and were terefore onl0 able to afford montl0 rental ousing of about 6S. 1(. In addition( te results from te stud0 sowed tat maForit0 of low income earners lived in single roomed ouses wic were mostl0 sared b0 at least * persons !adults and cildren#. Notewort0( in most ouseolds( te ouse was inabited b0 usband and wife wit teir cildren. &ters were sared b0 close friends and relatives to cusion financial uncertainties. ;ese findings impl0 tat te rising urban population is constantl0 treatened b0 te scarcit0 of emplo0ment opportunities coupled wit low wages( wic leads to man0  people living in overcrowded tin0 rooms in slums. %.2.2 ousing situation in slums ;able * sows tat( from te stud0( all respondents were rental tenants wit $1? reported to be living in single rooms. ;is scenario is mainl0 attributed to low income levels as sown b0 demograpics in section %.2.1 above. ;e ouses are made of mud and iron seets !$A?#( wic are ceap semi permanent materials( wit $1? of te ouses noted to ave onl0 ground floor. owever( new developments ave new structures aving upper floors created wit timber and iron seets. ;e ouses in te slums were considered to be e8pensive b0 residents  because of te poor state of te ouses. owever( maForit0 of te respondents !))?# reported to ave resided in te slums for ) to 2 0ears and ad acclimati:ed to te slum environment. ;ese findings impl0 tat tere is affordabilit0 problem in ousing te low income urban residents wic concentrates tem to deplorable living conditions in informal settlements. %.2.A +vailabilit0 of decent ousing in slums /rom ;able %( te results sow tat slums li9e 6ibera and ,atare lac9 basic services li9e sanitation( water( electricit0( feeder road networ9 and ouses are apa:ardl0 crowded on te ground floor witout full utili:ation of ig-rise space. Sanitation in poor urban settlements was observed to be a serious concern wit >%? of ouses witout toilets and residents ave no coice but to pa0 for toilet services in toilets operated remote to te ouses at a cost of % to 1 6S per visit. ;is necessitates man0 residents to resort to crude metods of uman waste and ouseold refuse disposal li9e disposing into drainage cannels( discarging uman e8creta indiscriminatel0
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