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Animation Opportunities of Intelligent Multimedia Systems in Developing a Creative Economy Park

—A creative economy park is a place designed with using a strategic objective in collaborating technological capabilities, information and knowledge transfer, cultivation of innovative high technology enterprises and entrepreneurs, emerging new
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    Animation Opportunities of Intelligent Multimedia Systems in Developing a Creative Economy Park Mohammad Suyanto  Magister of Information Technology   Universitas Amikom Yogyakarta Yogyakarta, Indonesia Ferry Wahyu Wibowo  Department of Informatics Universitas Amikom Yogyakarta  Yogyakarta, Indonesia  Abstract   —A creative economy park is a place designed with using a strategic objective in collaborating technological capabilities, information and knowledge transfer, cultivation of innovative high technology enterprises and entrepreneurs, emerging new technological industries within creative economy businesses to encourage an economic development .  Universitas Amikom Yogyakarta has declared as a creative economy park and known as the Amikom Creative Economy Park (ACEP). The ACEP encompasses some multimedia environments for aiming at business e.g. software development, film, television, game, radio, animation, advertising, investment advisory, and project design. As known that the multimedia is the field of multiple media sources comprising animation, audio, image, text, and video. This paper addressed at the discussion about the opportunities of the animation model in the intelligent era. The animation has been accepted by people in wider aspects and has assisted people in visual performance for entertaining, learning, modeling, etc. So the animation sector is very interested to be discussed since emerging of the intelligent multimedia fields.  Keywords—animation, business, creative economy, intelligent multimedia, model, opportunities. I.   I  NTRODUCTION  The creative enterprises are very significant in contributing to local and regional economies. In measuring and understanding the impact of the creative economy, the enterprises must identify the set of organizations to get evaluation data accurately in the economic sector. There are two research models in the tradition creative economy i.e. firstly, emphasizing the production of cultural goods and services, and secondly, emphasizing the role of intellectual innovation. So the creative economy is based on the conceptual model in goods and services as an outcome of the cultural expression [1]. Basically, the creative enterprises aren’t only the cultural enterprises, but it is also a process to grow and evolve in the future [2]. In the industrialization sectors, the management evaluation assessments are very important to do. The industries must use the assessment data to measure the creative industry employment, firm-level data, and occupational data [3]. The term of the creative economy park means an environment designed using a strategic objective within achievement of technological capabilities, information and knowledge transfer, cultivation of innovative high technology enterprises and entrepreneurs, emerging new technological industries involved in the field of creative economy businesses to impulse the new economic development  [4].  The main structure of this creative economy park based on 4 functions i.e. research and development (R&D), business and networked entrepreneurship, management and globalization, and infrastructure functions [5]. Universitas Amikom Yogyakarta has a vision on the creative economy sector and has declared the Amikom Creative Economy Park (ACEP). This park comprises some multimedia environments such as software development, film, television, game, radio, animation, advertising, investment advisory, and project design. Several  basic evaluations and steps of the resources have been taken in supporting the ACEP due to the employees [6], strategic management analysis with instrument testing [7-8], entrepreneurship and business development motivation [9] and how the behavior of the usage of the internet access [10], some research has also been proposed to deliver the use of technology such as radio frequency identification in campus [11], and many more research has been done. In developing campus to reach the world-class should also be evaluated more over [12-13]. This campus has also been equipped with research centers and laboratories such as innovation center, radio studio, broadcasting studio, game studio and multimedia, animation studio, cinema, internet server provider, motion capture studio, software house, informatics industry incubator center, and entrepreneur campus. With these assets, it will create opportunities to achieve a global business to develop a creative economy [14] and contribute to wider economic development and growth with 5 parameters i.e. the local strength, technological enablers, inspiring entrepreneurs, the role of government, and power of place [15]. The implementations of the multimedia applications and interfaces have been accepted by many people. Research in the field of hardware, software, and integration technology has  been done and developed. Even the roadmap of these fields has  been predicted and added novel concepts. The multimedia means that the information from the computer could be conducted by animations, audios, images/graphics, text, and videos. Commonly, the multimedia is a field relating to the integration of the five aspects such as graphics, sound/audio, still and moving images, drawing, text, animation, and any other media that the information could be transmitted,  processed, and stored digitally. While the multimedia 2018 International Conference on Information and Communications Technology (ICOIACT) 69  application is an application applying many media sources. The use of multimedia can be found on the transportation displays, multimedia kiosk, social media application, web-based system, etc. The world wide web (WWW) almost exists on the multimedia applications, media, and technologies. The concepts of the technological trends are also spreading in the computing area such as real-time multimedia computing, ubiquitous multimedia computing, mobile multimedia computing, etc. The supercomputing trend introduces the  biggest and fastest computing. Many issues that spread in this aspect due to the size and speed [16]. The issue of the interoperability is also having a place to bridge between both hardware and software, even this issue is also enacted between same machine platform [17]. The multimedia systems should  be controlled and arbitrated by the computer. The multimedia systems are integrated and performed digitally with the interactive elements using interfaces. Some devices of the multimedia system in the category of capture device are keyboards, graphics tablet, virtual reality devices, video camera, etc. Some devices for communication network are a token ring, intranets, internets, Ethernet, etc. And some devices for storage are hard disks, flash disks, solid state drive, compact disk – read-only memories (CD-ROMs), etc. One of the multimedia elements is an animation. The animation movie is one of the product outcomes of the ACEP. This paper addressed to the discussion of computer animation modeling on the intelligent era in the creative economy park environment. The scope of this discussion  presents the trends in the animation. II.   I  NTELLIGENT M ULTIMEDIA S YSTEMS  The multimedia system consists of inputs, multimedia  processing, and outputs. The multimedia systems are a communication network, computer platform, software applications and tools supporting the information types of five areas i.e. audio, image, video, text, and animation. This system media could be combined using two or more combination input and output media. The input media, in this case, contains touch, gestures, pen, speech, face, head, body movements, object movements, etc. those are coordinated properties with the multimedia system output. This system has multi-functionalities resulting responsive, flexible, and transparent in the context of human-computer interaction (HCI). In the implementation, this system attracts people as it is easy to learn and use. For some contents, it will be familiar so the cost of training for the users could be reduced. But for developing this intelligent multimedia system, it needs more times, costs, knowledge, and so on. This is the challenge for the multimedia developers how to make and research with combining all concepts and media to get an intelligent multimedia. Some novel perspective on the intelligent multimedia has  been proposed in many fields. Some interactions that convey the intelligent multimedia are the interaction between human-to-human (H2H), human-to-system (H2S), and human-to-information (H2I). These interactions could be generated by the interfaces to people, interfaces to applications, and interfaces to information. Many software applications and devices have been used in performing the intelligent multimedia. The touchscreen and gesture technologies have placed in the technology implementation [18]. The benefits of the usage of the intelligent multimedia comprise flexible, efficient, interactive, cost-effective, learning improvement, and modular. In the intelligent multimedia environments, the text field has been developed in the natural language systems. The implementation example of this field is a chatbot where people can chat with the machine using text while the knowledge is taken from the database [19]. The efficient and effective databases could be faster in searching data [20]. Another communication among the texts could be validated by using protocols on the internet [21]. The internet could also be used as a media to the conversation between human and system [22]. In the image field, the implementation example is capturing an image by comparing the rasterized image using a camera, so the image data will be triggered to activate the alerts through internet access [23]. Yet some conditions should consider the quality of service in the internet area to make a real time communication [24]. The computer vision field uses image and video to recognize and detect the objects [25]. The audio data has been represented and processed as an information for the listeners in such manners [26-27]. The integration of the intelligent multimedia systems could be shown in Figure 1. Fig. 1.   Intelligent multimedia systems. The intelligent multimedia systems shown in Figure 1 contain sensors as inputs, speaker, monitor, and other displays as outputs. The process part contains knowledge sources and storage systems. The storage systems could employ optimized database management systems or data warehouse [28]. It could also implement simple storage systems or data logger using mini storage device [29]. For the animation, the section will be  presented in the next section. III.   A  NIMATIONS  Scientist and engineers employ 3-dimensional (3-D) animation to produce data graphic representations. In the learning and entertainment, the animation is very popular  because it could be captured the people imagination and used to  performing arts [30]. The animation consists of images stored in the computer and could be viewed as a motion image at a normal playback in the player media. The animation can 2018 International Conference on Information and Communications Technology (ICOIACT) 70  visualize difficult moments and objects to get a complex concept. It can also communicate more information than an oral performance and create an interesting presentation. The 3-D animation makes a fastest creative technology, although it is hard to make. Many images should be created and generated. There are five animation principles i.e. modeling, motion, character construction, color and texture, and rendering. Modeling is creating an object from points, shapes, curves, etc. Motion is animating the modeled object using keyframes, simulation, path, etc. The Character is creating skeletons and attaching skins to skeletons. Color and texture are activities of applying multiple textures and defining a color to the objects. Rendering is adding sounds and compiling the images into movies. The animation and simulation are two subjects those are different. The difference between both animation and simulation could be shown by the principles. The animation isn’t interactive because there are no changes could be applied  by the user or viewer to control or modify the moving image, whereas the simulation is interactive because it could be changed with some boundaries as a user wants and the effects could be analyzed. A simulator is a computer model that has a similarity to a real conditions/objects/products which could respond differently due to the input data that is implemented, while the animation is a real-time performance. Types of a computer animation motion control are an artistic animation, data-driven animation, and procedural animation. In the artistic animation, the animator has a role to design and make the motion of the characters based on the interpolation. A data-driven animation could employ a live motion that is digitalized and thus mapped to the graphical objects. In this case, the motion would be captured and synthesized. In the procedural animation, this stage would manage and simulate the physical and behavioral for the animated characters. The perception has a role in the animation  performance of the characters and the backgrounds. An image could conduct a huge amount of information so an animation could benefit from conducting more information to the viewers.  A.   Traditional Animation The animation derived from the word of animate which means to give life to. There are some traditional animation techniques used consist of limited animation, rotoscoping, and character animation. In making the object animation, there are 12 fundamental principles of traditional animation technique have been proposed i.e. anticipation, appeal, arcs, exaggeration, follow through and overlapping action, secondary action, slow in and out, solid drawing, squash and stretch, staging, straight ahead action and pose-to-pose action, and timing and motion [31]. In the further development, the computer-assisted animation is applied to obtain the virtual camera and managing data. This concept is employed in the 2-D and 2.5-D, while the next step has been generated animation based on the computer. There are three techniques implemented in this namely low, medium, and high-level techniques. The low-level technique is applied to the shape interpolation of the animation to specify the animation object moving parameters, whereas the high-level technique is applied in generating the motion based on rules especially using physics principles. While the medium level technique is in between both low and high-level techniques.  B.   Character Transformation The 3-D animation character transformations comprise scaling, translation, and rotation. These transformations can employ coordinates and matrices. The coordinates used in the 3-D animation are α  ,  β  , and  χ  . The matrices that have been enacted to the animations consist of scaling ( ς  ), translation ( Ψ   ), and rotation ( Γ   ) as shown in equation (1), equation (2) and equation (3) respectively.  =   χ  β α ς ς ς  χ  β α   χ  β α  000000'''  (1)  =   χ  β α  χ  β α  100010001'''  (2)  −=  −=  −=   χ  β α γ  γ  γ  γ   χ  β α  χ  χ  β α γ  γ  γ  γ   χ  β α  β  χ  β α γ  γ  γ  γ   χ  β α α  1000cossin0sincos''' axiscos0sin010sin0cos''' axiscossin0sincos0001''' axis  (3) The rotation could be unappropriated as desired by the  programmer or user when the matrix isn’t orthonormal. For complex matrix operations in case of the special state, it could apply a metric tensor [32]. The representations of the 3-D rotation encompass a rotation matrix, fixed angle, and Euler angle. C.    Animation Based on Physics The computer can assist the animator to make special effects in the animation [33]. The animators aren’t encouraged to be accurate with the real condition but rather with the similar condition or it might not relate to physics at all. The animations could have boundaries enacted to the motion. The animators when they model the motion applying physics principles, they should determine the state of the modeling. Some models employing the motion procedures that aren’t applying physics  principles, it will cheap in computation and easier to program  but it will have flexibility lacks. The properties of forces in the animation are used to perform relationships among geometric elements. The forces can be formed into three conditions i.e. 2018 International Conference on Information and Communications Technology (ICOIACT) 71  unary, environmental, and particle pair. The unary forces could  be represented by a viscous drag and gravity. The particle pair forces could be represented by dampers and spring [34]. The environmental forces could arise from properties of the  particles due to the environment. Several principles of the  particles in animation implementation can be shown in Figure 2. Fig. 2.   The particle principles in animation. Figure 2(a) is a gravity principle using the equation as shown in equation (1). Figure 2(b) is a wind principle using the equation as shown in equation (2). Figure 2(c) is a viscous drag using the equation as shown in equation (3). And Figure 2(d) is a solar wind for the outer space animation [35]. ζ   = µ.ϑ (1) ζ   = κ.υ ϖ  (2) ζ   = −κ  δ .υ (3) Where ζ   is a force, µ  is a mass, ϑ  is a gravitation, κ  δ  is a drag constant, υ  is a velocity, κ   is a constant, and υ ϖ   is a wind velocity. Particle systems that have been implemented in animations such as fog, water, gases, clothes, flocking, rubber, hair, fire, etc. Some rules enacted due to this are physics  properties of particles shouldn’t collide with other particles and cast shadow except in some conditions. These properties could differ depending on the animated performances. The objects moving, collision, sliding, and etc. need to be computed accurately to get the smoothing scenes. These effects could utilize a stop-motion animation that is saved one at a time in creating motion on each frame. IV.   D ISCUSSIONS  The steps of the value chains in the animation movie consists of four steps i.e. design, production, branding, and channeling [36]. These value chain steps are used in developing the creative economy park in Universitas Amikom Yogyakarta and it could be seen in Figure 3. Fig. 3.   The value chains in the animation movie. The design step contains the critical resources for creative  people to get the data and research sources to support the  production in the digital creative contents including  preservation objects, museums, libraries, documents from the government department of the cultural section, etc. [37-39]. This step is also considering pre-production activities. The  production step is srcinating activities e.g. writing a script, describing characters and background scenes, music composition, software designer, the activities associated with editing, testing, and publishing are included within this step. In this creative factors could be shown in Table I. Some animation challenges in the intelligent multimedia paradigm for developing a system in the context of the creative economy consist of digitization, data compression, synchronization, character motion smoothing, and sequencing within the media. The digitization is correlating with the concept or/and media how the data could be translated from analog source to digital representation. The data compression is relating to the data storage and transfer. The synchronization is relating to the intermedia scheduling, this case often emerges on the implementation between audio and video. Smoothing a character motion is relating to the motion angle and direction for the object organs of the animated characters. Then sequencing is a problem in the media when playing frames in a video. The branding step includes manufacturing and distribution steps, whereas the steps of channeling include second-hand sales. The creative economy is built on the culture and story to obtain a valuable target in the market of the animation movies. TABLE I. T HE A CTIVITIES IN THE C REATIVE FACTORS a   Creative Factors Definitions Types Activities Music and movie   Music Music composition Music performance Music recording Movie Movie production Movie special effects Movie script writing Video libraries Software and composition Software Software development Software product Composition Libraries Writing 2018 International Conference on Information and Communications Technology (ICOIACT) 72  Creative Factors Definitions Types Activities Design and visual art Design Graphic arts Illustration Characters Scenes Product design Specific design Visual arts Photography Visual arts a.   Adapted from [2] The animation future requires a capability of the faster internet in transmitting larger files, better software and technology in making animations, and more interactive  playback. The animation distribution is always depended on the internet and hard to make because requiring multiple data sets. Some animation challenges are a real-time constraint conveying a fast computation and graphics, artist control, 3-D interface design, motion retargeting, motion scripting, and realistic movement. In this case, the scope of the animation movie could be shown in Figure 4. Fig. 4.   Scope of the animation movie. The control hierarchy in making animations could reduce the numbers of animators. Character animation could be embedded the artificial intelligence on the animation within the control motion of the bodies, limbs, hairs, and clothes; facial animation; and the skeletal-muscle-skin models. The challenges in the motion capture for animations should increase the speed, captured area, and implement multiple characters, so it will reduce the cost of making animations. V.   C ONCLUSIONS  The services in developing a creative economy park should able in supporting the business, technology, and information strategies. The new technologies have a powerful impact on developing business models and creativities. In developing a creative economy park, the concept of the value chains in making an animation movie has been proposed. It consists of design, production, branding, and channeling. Many issues arise in the making of the animated films. The story is then  processed to produce a selling point. The development of animation modeling should be further developed to meet the challenges of character creation and motion of animated objects in the intelligent era. The knowledge sources in the animation could be built to provide an efficient and effective animation film production that meet the market needs. A CKNOWLEDGMENT  This work has been supported by Universitas Amikom Yogyakarta and authors would like to thank for presenting this  paper. 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Wibowo, “Implementation of Viterbi Algorithm Based-on FPGA for Wireless Sensor Network,” Advanced Science Letters, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 3521-3525, November 2015. DOI: 10.1166/asl.2015.6594. [17]   F. W. Wibowo, “Interoperability of reconfiguring system on FPGA using a design entry of hardware description language,” 2011 Computation and Communication Technologies: 3rd International 2018 International Conference on Information and Communications Technology (ICOIACT) 73
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