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Arranging Hybridity: Cuban-Canadian Musicians, Global Culture and the Politics of Genre in Toronto

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Abstract This study focuses on the arranging strategies of five Cuban musicians who, having migrated to Canada between 1997 to 2000, were attempting to adapt and establish their careers in the competitive, multicultural city of Toronto. Combining
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  ARRANGING HYBRIDITY:CUBAN-CANADIAN MUSICIANS, GLOBAL CULTUREAND THE POLITICS OF GENRE IN TORONTO BRIGIDO GALVANA DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF GRADUATESTUDIESIN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTSFOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHYGRADUATE PROGRAM IN MUSICYORK UNIVERSITY,TORONTO, ONTARIOAUGUST 2010  iv    Abstract This study focuses on the arranging strategies of five Cuban musicians who,having migrated to Canada between 1997 to 2000, were attempting to adapt and establishtheir careers in the competitive, multicultural city of Toronto. Combining ethnographicwith musical analysis, this dissertation examines how, in making musical decisions,musicians implicated issues of identity. This analysis takes into account the influence theinternational industries of Latin music and world music had on their musical decisions.Cuban music is part of a multilateral, international continuum, fading into and rising outof various musical realms, most notably salsa, Latin music, Latin jazz and world music.This generic indeterminacy impacted on how Cuban musicians attempted to representthemselves musically: they drew musical distinctions that intersected with national,racial, ethnic, gender and other types of social categories. Theoretically, the study isframed as a review of the concept of hybridity. In their diasporic situation as Cubanmigrants, attempting to compete in a cosmopolitan centre like Toronto, the arrangementsand musical lives of the musicians are emblematic of hybridity, as a concept that, of recent, acts as a rubric for a major shift in the way of thinking about identities. Themusical decisions and dilemmas Cuban musicians face, however, reveal certaintheoretical, empirical and ethical limitations of hybridity. Some of these limitations, I argue, stem from hybridity‘s roots in modern epistemology and its colonial history, particularly as it pertains to its history in Latin America. Ultimately, this study situatesthe musical lives of five Cuban musicians at the intersection of worldwide historical,geopolitical, socioeconomic and cultural developments, and attempts to understand, inconcrete human terms, some of the artistic, political and pragmatic issues they face.  v   Table of Contents 1.   Introduction 1   1.1.   Globalization, ―hybridity‖ and the ―crisis of identity‖ 61.1.1.   What is globalization? 91.1.2.   When did globalization begin? 151.1.3.   How to assess globalization? 211.2.   Ethnographic approach 281.3.   Situating this study 351.4.   Genre and hybridity: a theoretical framework 401.5.   Thesis outline 48 2.   Cuban Music in Toronto: Historical Context and Turning Points 51   2.1.   The rise of Latin music in Toronto 512.2.   Downsizing: the global recession and demise of live music in the 1980s 632.3.   Neo-traditions: the world music factor 682.3.1.   Global dimensions 682.3.2.   Local impact 752.4.   Conclusions 84 3.   The Musicians 87   3.1.   Evaristo Machado 893.2.   Hilario Durán 953.3.   Pablo Terry 1003.4.   Julio Cesar Jiménez 1023.5.   David Chala 1063.6.   Non-Cuban musicians in this study 1104.   Spatiality, Nation and Authority 1134.1.   Cuban music in quarantine 114  vi   4.1.1.   Modernity as a contaminant: the music and media industries 1154.1.2.   Capitalism as a contaminant: scholarly representations 1224.1.3.   Exclusivity and authority: musicians and Cuban identity in Toronto1264.1.3.1.   Afro-Cuban traditions and the ownership of salsa 1284.1.3.2.   Cuban music, the sound of modernity 1374.2.   Cuban identity and the politics of genre in Toronto 1454.2.1.   Modernity versus tradition: the Cuban identity schism 1494.2.2.   Cuban identity and the pressures from without 1694.3.   Conclusions 1744.3.1.   Hybridity and Eurocentric modernity 1775.   Transcending the Nation 1825.1.   ―Salsa con Timba,‖ a transnational identity 1855.2.   Arranging difference, marketing identity 1995.2.1.   Instrumentation and texture 2025.2.1.1.   Rhythm section 2025.2.1.2.   Horn section 2225.2.1.3.   Vocals 2315.2.1.4.   Special production features 2325.2.2.   Formal structure 2485.2.2.1.   The tema 2495.2.2.2.   Montuno 2525.2.2.3.   Salsa variations, timba peculiarities: extending the montuno2545.3.   Conclusions 2585.3.1.   Afro-centric Cuban national identity in a transnational context 264  vii   6.   Competence and Difference 272   6.1.   Rhythm, nation and race 2746.2.   Class consciousness and modernity 2876.3.   Masculinity and competence 298 7.   Conclusion 314  Glossary 325  References 329  Discography/Videography 347   Appendix: Score of ―Salsa con Timba‖   359  
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