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Business English class notes february.docx

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     Lexis and syntax : register analysis    Advertising    Genres    Conceptual metaphors    Intercultural communication Essay 8-10 pages CONTENTS 1.   Introduction 2.   The vocabulary of the economy, finance and commerce of English language. 3.   Lexical and syntactical peculiarities of Business English. Linguistic characteristics of advertising language, 4.   Genres of Business English. 5.   Conceptual metaphors in Economics. 6.   Negotiation and intercultural communication. THE VOCABULARY OF FINANCE 1)popular and colloquial language Belt and suspenders Front loading loads Back loading loads 2)anglo saxon words Hedge Swaps  forwards 3)expressiveness of images The image of a stream of a river to speak about the relationships between companies 4)names of animals Bear market Bull market Bear’s hug    Teddy bear’s hug  5) names of colours The big blue Blue-collor worker Red interest 6) Abbreviations and acronyms TOM (TOMORROW) ECB (European central bank) THE VOCABULARY OF COMMERCE Norman and old French worlds , mainly those of shipping like charter party (contrato de flatamiento), avarafe (promedio) Strong presence of trade lsw or mercantile law vocabulary. This cocabulary is often derived from Latin Practice The language of finance Commom words usefd to discurss economic matters  LEXICAL AND SYNTACTICAL PECULATIRITES OF BUSINESS ENGLISH Lexical peculiarities A)   Types of vocabulary    Technical vocabulary (very precise) we don’t need the context . e.g. macroeconomics    Semi-technical vocabulary (to advise= to inform, to meet a deadline = cumplir un plazo). Words that come from general English, but in a specific context get a new meaning.    General vocabulary The latter two are the most common (Alcaraz Varó, E,) B)   The lexical characteristics of business English are as follows: Those related to the meaning of the word (semantic lexicology): o   Definition o   Denotation and connotation (cheap/low cost) o   Semantic fields (synonymy, antonymy) o   Lexical collocations  –  set phrases e.g. company cars, trade discounts, Those related to the formation of words (morphological lexicology) a)   Derivation (affixes) e.g wholesale, rewrite b)   Composition e.g. tax collection (compound nouns) c)   Conversion e.g. ship/to ship. that means that our word can have another grammatical category d)   Abbreviations 1.   Clippings : ad   advertisement 2.   Acronyms : plc (public limited company) 3.   Blends : travelogue (travel+ catalogue) e)   False friends : assistant (ayudante) , agenda (orden del día) and attend (asistir) f)   Metaphors a tailor-made loan a  n implicit comparison between two things that unrelated (traditionally speaking)  –   un préstamo hecho a medida 2.) Syntactical peculiarities The most basic syntactic concepts in economics  –   business texts of written expression are the following.    Passive sentences: the figures have been prepared by our new accountants    Nominalisation: the development of small business. A noun made from a verb.    Personification : the new plan suggests that . giving human qualities to things.     Long nominal group : six heavy mahogany-finished dressing tables had been sent,    Hypothetical expressions: if we pay the tax on time, we won’t be liable for any further payment.    Expressions of purpose : they moved to a greenfield site so that they would have room to expand    Causal and consecutive expressions : the company opened because they saw a gap in the market. Interest rates are down again. Therefore, we can look at new investments (as, since, as a result of, because of , sue to, thus , hence, etc)    Expressions of concession : even though their resources were limited, their results were excellent. (even though, although, even if, however , in spite of,etc) Set up a business : to start a business Go to bankruptcy CEO : chief executive officer = chairman TYPES OF BUSINESS 1.   Self-employed people and partnerships They are two types of organisation The ones that have unlimited liability (Sole proprietorship vs partnership) 2.   Limited liability  they only lose the money , not their personal properties Ltd , PLC Br , Inc (amE) Larger companies than a partnership The shares quote on the stock market 3.   Mutuals Building societies  –   bancos hipotecarios 4.   Non- profit organizations PRESENTATION OF A COMPANY
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