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  CLASS NOTES 2.2 Studies at the international level Politico-cultural production relations have dominated labour productivity into tea plantations. This culture of the plantation community operates negatively with respect to the management agenda (Wickramasinghe & Cemeron, 2002) . It was also argued that social capital development into tea plantations was important not only for productivity improvement but also for reasons of political & social obligation for the nation, because migrant plantation workers have been working & living into the plantations over 150 years. Others (Biyanwila & Janaka, 2003)  look at the case of an union into the tea  plantation & its potential towards developing an social movement unionism strategic orientation. into particular, the dimension focuses onto the deepening of democratic tendencies within the union which may be capable of reinforcing the movement dimension of union. The study conducted elsewhere (Moxham, 2003)  focuses onto the effect of British tea addiction onto British policies into Asia & Africa. Another approach (Wikramasinghe & Cameron, 2003)  explores the issues into the Sri Lankan tea industry, which contrary to conventional thinking onto economies of scale, was dominated into production, yield, efficiency & contribution to the national economy by newly emerged small holder sector. The study found that socio cultural & political relations dominate production & as an  consequence, the theory of economies of scale has loose interpretation into the context of the Sri Lankan tea industry. An attempt (Kodithuvakku & Priyanath, 2007)  to review the reasons for the improvement of labour productivity after privatization concluded that the labour productivity into tea plantations has improved after privatization due to improvement of labour satisfaction, shift arrangement, & application of new techniques of the private companies. Uprooting & replanting of degraded old seedling tea plantation with clonal cultivars would be profitable (Kamau, 2008) . However, management practices that  prevent degradation were most cost effective. As seen elsewhere (KHRC, 2008)  the sexual harassment was prevalent into large scale estates & the formal mechanism to report cases of sexual harassment were either absent or underutilized. The housing condition of the worker was deplorable. The workers living into such condition were not living into an dignified life. Most of the workers have heard about human rights but have scanty knowledge onto what exactly human rights are. As such they do not know what to do when the rights were violated (Malavi Centre for Advice, Research & Education onto Rights, 2008) . an comprehensive & coordinated civic education campaign into human & labour rights can address the gap & empower the workers into tea estates to start demanding for their rights whenever there were violations. A different approach examines the current situation & medium term  prospects for production, consumption & trade of tea & its impact onto the world  tea market ( Hicks , 2009 ). Tea was considered as having an share of the global  beverage market, an highly competitive field. an wide range of tea products continue to be developed, through product & process development for added value, as market share become more sophisticated & competitive. The tea industry must rise to these challenges, facing the future with confidence. Another view (Blowfield & Dolan, 2010)  explores the complex nature of an  beneficial outcome for the poor & marginalized & the gap that can exist between ethical intention & the experience of their intended beneficiaries. Any commercial initiative that seeks to achieve outcomes beneficial & recognizable to the poor will need to address. The study (Lincoln, 2010)  examines the world production of plantation crops over time to determine the proportions accounted for by labourers into countries that have ratified the plantations convention. The study contributes to an understanding of the complexity of applying labour standards into the parts of global value chains that were located into the global south. It points to the need for revision to better serve the South’s export of agricultural workers. The focus of the production of tea into Usambara mountains (Campagnola, 2011)  shows that how the actual forms of labour organization among the tea  peasants into the Usambara mountains have their roots into the colonial past & post  –   independence Tanzania. The competence, assessment & development, management by objectives,  performance based pay, & employees training were the main factors that had an  impact onto employee performance into Kenya tea development agency (Messah & Kamencu, 2011) . An attempt (Islam, 2012)  to assess measuring impact of Kazi & Kazi tea estate limited, an organic garden into Bangladesh, observes that if the perceived  problem could be solved by setting up of more tea processing industries, competitive markets at the grass roots for tea leaves, supply of natural gas & resolving problems like power crisis could accelerate the production of tea. Kazi & Kazi tea estate needs to initiate more social activities into the wider scale into the diverse field for the well -being of the community people. Others (Kagira, Kimani, & Githii, 2012)  address the challenges facing the small holder tea sector into Kenya. Supplier & customer relationship, value addition, information technology, information sharing, flexibility into internal operations , upgrading of tea seedlings, proper coordination, institutionalization,  policy reforms, training, monitoring marketing environment, strategic decisions, irrigation, venturing into new market through partnership & civil society involvement as competitive supply chain strategies into the face of declining & shifting competitiveness of the small holder sector into Kenya. The study conducted elsewhere (Kipkorir, Feng, Li, Wang, & Kipsat, 2012)  estimates how socio economic factors influence small holder farmers decision to adopt the available tea farming technologies. The study concludes that the management skills seem to be lacking among the tea farmers into Nandi hills & calls for its inclusion into the training package. An organization to specifically represent the interests of estate small holders would also be welcomed & useful.
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