Graphic Art

Do we need a specific study of masculinities in their own right?

Description
“Cyborg imagery can suggest a way out of the maze of dualism in which we have explained our bodies” (Haraway, 1987, 36) A study of masculinities requires exclusionary boundaries to be placed on the concept. Masculinities have been defined in ways
Categories
Published
of 9
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Transcript
  DO WE NEED A SPECIFIC STUDY OF MASCULINITIESIN THEIR OWN RIGHT? Student ID: 594111Cu!"e T#t$e:   T%e Ant%!&$'( ) Gende!Cu!"e Cde:   151*+,+-1Tut!." N/0e: C/!$#ne O"e$$/A""#'n0ent Nu0e!: 1W!d Cunt: ,45- 1  DO WE NEED A SPECIFIC STUDY OF MASCULINITIES IN THEIR OWN RIGHT?Int!du2t#n: “Cyborg imagery can suggest a way out of the maze of dualism in which we have explained our bodies” (Haraway, 1!", #$% A study of masculinities requires exclusionary boundaries to be placed on the concept. Masculinities have been dened in ways that vary cross culturally and between individuals (Inhorn and Wentzell !"##$ %oe !""#& ma'in it di)cult to unify the concept. I choose to frame masculinity as emerin throuh networ's and connections with particular aspects of life and society. I arue that examinin these shiftin networ's enables one to study masculinities as constructed throuh particular situations. We don*t need a specic study of masculinities +in their own riht* but instead a framewor' throuh which to map masculinities as continuously bein (re&constructed. In her +A ,ybor Manifesto* -araway (#/0 !#& uses the analoy of the cybor to call for a blurrin of boundaries between natural and articial worlds. With the abundance of technoloies (mobile phones pharmaceutical drus etc.& we use today we can all consider ourselves a little cybor1 the lines between human and technoloy are becomin more di)cult to draw. 2espite -araway*s emphasis on women I will use to this piece to arue that masculinities should be studied not as a bounded discrete cateory but as networ'ed. 3tudyin masculinities +in their own riht* implies that it is a universally applicable cateory. If one studies masculinities with recourse to an +ideal type* then behaviours societies characteristics miht be classied as more or less masculine leavin little space for explorations of the varyin and chanin connections that miht produce masculinities within di4erent contexts. Althouh I could answer this essay question by explorin the intersections between masculinity and race or the masculine5feminine binary I choose instead to move beyond the binarisms present in these connections so as not to prioritize certain practices as masculine over others. 6iotechnoloies challene the notion of a +natural* endered identity. In this essay I adopt 6utler*s idea that the male body is no more than an imained sub7ective body.  8he male body is a fantasy that is performatively expressed to ive the illusion of reality. (6utler #9 :#$ ;reciado !"#: 9<& 8he natural is nothin more than an idea of the natural (6utler #9 :#&. I adopt this view to move beyondcateorizin behaviours as natural or unnatural and towards instead examininthe shiftin networ's that ive rise to the idea of a +natural* masculinity. 2  I will explore instances in which masculinities are shown to be unstable contradictory and rife with di4erences to demonstrate the vast array of practices that could be excluded when studyin masculinities accordin to a sinular denition. I will bein by explorin how certain !# st  century masculinities miht emere throuh biotechnoloies. 8his will be followed by an analysis of the notion of performance in endered expressions. %astly I will explore the contradictions and di4erences in these particular connections. We do not need a study of masculinities +in their own riht*. 3tudyin masculinities as a clearly bounded cateory runs the ris' of overloo'in variations. 8o avoid essentialisin I propose that an emphasis on networ's between various aspects of social life both material and non5material may account for the level of variation and chane that characterizes masculinities as emerin1 continuously enacted and performed throuh various associationswith material and non5material networ's. 3IOTECHNOLOGIES: “&odern medicine is also full of cyborgs, of couplings between organism and machine” (Haraway, 1!", '1''% Masculinities in certain !# st  century contexts can be studied as networ'ed throuh biotechnoloies which wor' throuh performative feedbac'1 biotechnoloies and masculinities dialectically construct one another (;reciado!"#: 9<&. A specic study of masculinities without recourse to shiftin connections li'e these miht exclude variations. -araway (#/0 !<& arues that =there is nothin about bein female that naturally binds women>. With reference to -araway*s cybors I will show how particular masculinities miht emere as hybrid forms with biotechnoloies.  8he connections between reproductive technoloies and men*s bodies and identity characterizes masculinities as emerent. Inhorn and Wentzell (!"##& explore new forms of embodied masculinity in the Middle ?ast and Mexico in relation to assisted reproductive technoloies for male infertility and pharmaceuticals for erectile dysfunction. %i'e -araway*s (#/0& cybor theory these instances blur the lines between human and machine$ Middle ?astern and Mexican masculinities are embodied throuh medicalised technoloies (Inhorn and Wentzell !"## /"#&. 8hey show how men neotiate stereotypes of masculinity throuh acceptance or re7ection of medicalisation of infertility. Mappin networ's between endered sub7ectivity and medical technoloies 3  can capture the complexity of masculinities. In prior research durin the /"s and "s Inhorn and Wentzell (!"## /"0& state that Middle ?astern men were reluctant to spea' about their infertility as it was considered emasculatin. -owever they demonstrate that throuh medicalisation infertility has become normalized (Inhorn and Wentzell !"## /"0&. @or example durin a two hour interview -isham did not once mention his masculinity (Inhorn and Wentzell !"## /"&. 8his illustrates the disassociation of i(n&fertility with problems of masculinity (Inhorn and Wentzell !"## /"&. 8hey arue for framin masculinities as +emerent* in order to avoid the static dualisms that come withstudyin +heemonic* and +subordinate* masculinities (Inhorn and Wentzell !"## /"!&. 3tudyin masculinities as emerin throuh varyin and chanin networ's of biotechnoloies as opposed to a distinct cateory demonstrates the performative feedbac' throuh which masculinities emere in relation to medical technoloies. ;arallels between prescriptions of masculinities and prescriptions of iara illustrates the sinicance of pharmaceuticals in the materialization of particular masculinities in the !# st  century (-uhes !"##&. iara can be a toolin the production and achievement of masculinity (%oe !""# #"9&. 8he medical lanuae describin the body in iara discourse mirrors that of machines1 words li'e +functionin* and +maintenance* (%oe !""# ##"&. iara does not ive a +natural* but a +normal* sexuality (%oe !""# ##9&. In cybor theory normality is realized throuh networ's that miht include biotechnoloies and drus li'e iara which become natural (-araway #/0 !9&. %arry for example tal's about his penis as a disembodied tool describin lenth texture and irth (-uhes !"## <&. -uhes (!"## <& interprets this description as bein a result of biomedical prescriptions. Masculinities and iara dialectically construct one another in these particular instances. It is nonetheless important to ac'nowlede that networ's may vary accordin to socio5economic cultural bac'rounds and more and that medical technoloies are merely one instance throuh which masculinities emeres. In ;reciado*s (!"#: 99& account of her experiences ta'in testosterone as a recreational dru she characterises contemporary society as bein a pharmaco5pornoraphic reime in which our sub7ectivities are shaped by substances that we inest. 3he describes the policin of ender in the instructions of her illeally obtained testosterone1 =8his dru is reserved for useof the adult male> (;reciado !"#: B#&. 3tudyin masculinities as emerin throuh drus li'e testosterone and iara shows that masculinities are not xed but can chane with wider shiftin patterns in society. 8hese chanes and patterns miht be overloo'ed if masculinities are dened in studies as a sinle clearly bounded cateory. 4   8he body ender and sexuality may emere in relation to medical technoloies. Masculinities can be performed and experienced throuh neotiations with male infertility treatment and iara. 8hese cateories and networ's are unstable$ they can be reconured throuh various networ's demonstratin the need to study masculinities as emerent and not as stable and bounded. ILLUSION 3ETWEEN FICTION AND SOCIAL REALITY: “)he boundary between science *ction and social reality is an optical illusion” (Haraway, 1!', '1% 3tudyin masculinities as a bounded cateory miht overloo' their fraility. Ceotiations with medical technoloies may be one way in which Middle ?astern and Mexican masculine sub7ectivities are performed. Ideas of ender performance can reveal the instability of the notion of masculinities as performances blur the line between imaination and reality. Diviere*s (# #9#& suestion that there is no di4erence between womanliness and the feminine masquerade is useful for thin'in about masculinities and the male body. Masculinities may emere throuh networ's not necessarily tied to any one 'ind of body. @emale artists impersonatin ;resley challene the relationship between maleness and masculinity and the stability of endered identities (6rittan !""B #B&. 6rittan (!""B #0#& believes that female impersonators are often neatively rearded because they reveal the masquerade and theatricality masculinities themselves (6rittan !""B #0#&. 3he suests ?lvis may be a man explorin the performativity of maleness withhis elaborate outts and stae presence (6rittan !""B #0B&. ?nid 6utler won rst prize for her performance of the Ein because she loo'ed li'e ?lvis more than others1 this instance may suest that convincin impressions rely on performance rather than a male body (6rittan !""B #/"&. -er analysis demonstrates that masculinity is not proper to the male body or inherently di4erent from female masquerade. Masculinity is instead fraile and messy. 3tudyin masculinities +in their own riht* leads to di)cult questions about what characteristics to base the denition masculinity on and how to draw boundaries between the masculine and non5masculine. 2rawin static boundaries excludes transressive practices movin beyond ender binaries. Fnderstandin performance as constructin the reality of masculinities in a study of masculinities leaves denitions inclusive of varyin practices.@ramin masculinities as performative hihlihts their instability and Guidity. ;reciado (!"#: 9<& uses the term +toxico5pornoraphic sub7ectivities* to refer 5
Search
Similar documents
View more...
Tags
Related Search
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks