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Dry Toilet Sanitation as an Alternative Solution to the Rural Ethiopia

Dry Toilet Sanitation as an Alternative Solution to the Rural Ethiopia
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  DRY TOILET 2015 5 th  International Dry Toilet Conference Dry Toilet Sanitation as an Alternative Solution to the Rural Ethiopia Beshah M. Behailu*Doctoral student at Tampere University of Technology (TUT! "inland# and $ecturer at %r&a MinchUniversity! 'thiopia'mail) Behailu,ype) -elila.mogesie Autobiography Mr. Beshah Mogesse Behailu is lecturer at %r&a Minch University in 'thiopia and a doctoral student atTampere University of Technology ith research focus of sustaina&le services of rural ater supply. /eparticularly doing research in title 0Community Manage 1ro2ects) "or sustaina&le rural 3ater supply andsanitation services delivery4. Moreover! he holds an M+c in 3ater supply and 'nvironmental 'ngineering from%r&a Minch University ('thiopia in 676. In his 77year career he has served as practitioner engineer andacademia in the area of ater supply and sanitation. Abstrat This paper intended to explore the sanitation situation of the rural Ethiopia and evaluate how theexisting situation can welcome dry toilet as an alternative for sanitation. The study was based on thefield survey, literature reviews and field observation during November - December of 2!2 and 2!",and #une 2!$. The survey found out that a lot has been done in the area, but it is too early to declarethat the %uestion is solved. &n terms of DT sanitation policy and promotion intra-ministerialcollaborations are improving. 'oreover, the traditional use of night soil for the crops that are eatencoo(ed is an interesting part to be ta(en into account when considering dry toilet. 8eyords)  Dry toilet, pit latrine, fertili)er, sanitation and behavior Intro!ution Improving sanitation has &een an agenda of decades for national governments! financing and partnerorgani9ations in developing countries. +till .5 &illion people around the orld lac, access to propersanitation hereas half of them practice open defecation (3/:! 67# cited in :;neill! 675. Mostimportantly! the pro&lem prevails in the su&+aharan countries! li,e 'thiopia. %ccording to the U<3orld toilet day press release! in 'thiopia a&out =>? of the population@s toilet option is open field(U<! 67A and hence ran,ed among the top 76 countries! hich practice open defecation (3/:!67A. In 'thiopia various organi9ation are involved in a campaign of improving sanitation coverage)Ministry of 3ater! Irrigation and 'nergy (Mo3'# Ministry of /ealth (Mo/ and Ministry of'ducation (Mo'! partner organi9ations are the main actors. 'arlier they used to operate independentlyithout coordination. +ince 67=! all the ministries reached to an agreement to harmoni9e their effortsfor one 3a+/ (:<31! 67=. et! to come to a solution is uite challenging since solving sanitation  DRY TOILET 2015 5 th  International Dry Toilet Conference alone cannot &ring ultimate result. The feasi&le direction that needs to &e considered in rural 'thiopiais to ma,e multisectoral campaign! and lin, open defecation to the improvement of agriculturalproductivity. %ctually! this reuires a change in the traditional toilet types to fit ith composting. %lmost no flush toilet has &een used in the rural part of the country. It ould reuire high capital costand there is no house connection of ater supply. In rural areas here per capita supply is &elo 75liters per day (Behailu! et al.! 675! it is unthin,a&le to install flush toilets or to ma,e ater &ornetoilets  these are good reasons to thin, of dry toilet. Common toilet type in the rural areas and mostcities of the country is pit latrine. The nature of pit latrine promotes &urring and forgetting humanastes  thus neglecting resources (Mei9inger! 66E. The process of ,eeping human astes in pitlatrine ill result in disconnection of phosphorous cycle. This ill result in importing and distri&utingartificial fertili9er ith eFpensive foreign currency! for the sa,e of improve productivity (%&&ott!67=. Gural poor are also imposed to &uy fertili9ers &y credit and pay the price ith interests su&2ectto the change of the increasing dollar value. Most farmers cried out loud for the situation since theirplots cannot generate adeuate product to cover fertili9er cost. The other very important reason thatdrives us using human astes as fertili9er is that its advantages of over the inorganic fertili9ers inproductivity! early maturity! and even taste (Cofie H %damtey! 66E. Thus! thin,ing sanitationpromotion as a source of fertili9er could &e accepta&le and ould enhance efforts for dual functions.  Ai" an! #etho!ology The paper aims at eFploring the eFisting situation of sanitation in rural 'thiopia (&riefing nationalstrategy! citi9en perception! practical situation and tric,s &eteen the health eFtension or,ers and therural people on sanitation and discussing ays to ma,e dry toilet as an alternative sanitation solution.The research is ualitative &y its nature! &ased on the vies of individuals in rural areas! and fieldo&servations in rural 'thiopia. % household survey (n75A as done on sanitation practices (handash! toilet and use! open defecation and daily ater consumption. In addition to the survey! theauthor made his o&servations on the provision of sanitation facilities and the eFtent of use. Moreover!literature revies as made to loo, through the eFisting situation and national government@s strategy. In the selection of the sample for the survey! the governmental structure as folloed. %mhara andBenishangul -umu9 regions ere considered for the study since the focus of the research isCommunity Managed 1ro2ects (CM1 approach for ater supply and sanitation and this approach aspracticed more commonly in the to regions. Based on the num&er of districts that implemented CM1approach! three from Benishangul -umu9 and four from %mhara ere selected. % total of 7JE aterpoints ere randomly selected and one third of user households from these ater points ereintervieed for ater. %ccordingly! 75A mem&ers of households ere intervieed during <ovem&er Decem&er of 67 and 67=! and Kune 67A. Moreover! o&servation of toilets as made in parallel.The focus of the survey as ater supply and sanitation. In this paper only the sanitation part isconsidered. The paper ill present the result and discussion part a&out national strategy to em&ar, on sanitationimprovement! status of sanitation and open defecation in the study areas! open defecation in the lensesof the user and &uilt sanitation facilities and their utili9ation. It covers also traditional thin,ing of ruralpeople toards human astes as resource and the opportunity to &ring dry toilet as an alternativeoption. Results an! !isussion Progress in reducing open defecation The paper is discusses the progresses of Benishangul -umu9 region! %mhara region and the nationalcases! since the study is focused in the to regions. %s indicated in "igure 7! open defecation reducednationally as significantly &eteen 7EE6 and 67! a&out 55? populations succeed to get rid of open  DRY TOILET 2015 5 th  International Dry Toilet Conference defecation. In 7EE6 open defecation as E? and &y 67 the figure as reduced to =J? (3/:!67A. "igure 7. :pen defecation in 'thiopia and in the to regions &eteen 7EE6 and 67 (3/:! 67A /oever! the improvement in sanitation in the time frame mentioned a&ove is not changing uniformlythroughout. "or eFample! in the %mhara region achievement as 5>? (from E=? to =J? hile theBenishangul -umu9 did only E?. The rest of the population ho counted as having sanitation facilitycannot &e a&solutely considered as saniti9ed community. %t least men and &oys spent their time atfarm here there is no toilet. :n the other hand! having toilet is not a guarantee for uncontaminatedenvironment. If parts of the family mem&ers fail to use sanitation facility properly! it ill affect thehole family. The same is true hen some households fail to maintain proper sanitation! &ecause thepro&lem ill reach everyone in the village. Therefore! the principle of 0<ot in my yard4 is notapplica&le for sanitation. Trend of incorporating sanitation in projects and the national strategy The terms water supply and sanitation  are dominating titles of pro2ects. In 'thiopia! one cannot findater supply pro2ect ithout sanitation. In practice! sanitation part is given very little attentioncompared to ater supply. The reason &ehind! &ased on my 2udgment! is the eFperts involved in suchpro2ects are not staffed from &oth disciplines reasona&ly. :nly engineers may &e given responsi&ilityand at the course of implementation they focus only on engineering and end ith no or little sanitationpart. The other hypothesis a&out the pro&lem is that sanitation may &e suffiFed to a pro2ects@ name toincrease the possi&ility of getting fund. 3hatever the reason is! sanitation is the area! hich gets lessattention &y implementers unless devoted only for sanitation.This pro&lem is not only at pro2ect level in 'thiopia! &ut it is also reflected at the ministerial level. TheMo3' as responsi&le to 3ater! +anitation and /ygiene (3%+/ activity! at the same time the Mo/also responsi&le to the 3%+/. Both are spending resources# hoever! the pro&lem is the lac, ofintegration. They cannot do &oth ater supply and sanitation adeuately. They did not share theuality they have. Moreover! their plans ere not integrated. "or instance! 'thiopia launched /ealth eFtension program (/'1 in 66=. The program has sevenma2or areas and 7J pac,ages to address! among hich  *ygiene and Environmental +anitation is   anarea ith seven pac,ages. The pac,ages are proper and safe eFcreta disposal system! proper and safesolid and liuid aste management! ater supply safety measures! food hygiene and safety measures!healthy home environment! arthropod and rodent control! and personal hygiene (Bilal! et al. 677.The first three pac,ages are common for the to ministries and to their regional counterparts.Moreover! their &eneficiaries are also same people. They had or,ed independently and fragmentallyin the ay it contri&uted for lo achievements. %t least &y no! they are trying to harmoni9e theiror, to plan and implement together in their area of speciali9ation (:<31! 67=. The Mo/ isresponsi&le for sanitation aspect hereas Mo3' is accounta&le for ater supply aspect.  DRY TOILET 2015 5 th  International Dry Toilet Conference %t the moment! /ealth 'Ftension 3or,ers (/'3s provide any education related matters for hygieneand sanitation. /'3s assigned at each  ebele  (smallest administration unit in 'thiopia here theycan meet rural people house to house to give advice on the /'1 pac,ages. In this program! thetechniue used to &oost sanitation is creating competition among villages and signify the &est and theorst pu&licly &y erecting green and red flag in the villages. -reen is the sym&ol of :pen Defecation"ree (:D" hereas red is the other ay round. Chec,lists that need to &e fulfilled during /'3s@ scout are presence of toilets! hand ash facilities!and :D" free environment. Therefore! every mem&er of a village ants to have green flag and ,eepthe reuirements at least physically  proper utili9ation is also another &ig issue for saniti9edenvironment. Gemem&er! /'3s also need to have successful villages under their intervention area.Therefore! there are misrepresentations to escape from &eing la&eled &adly in front of every &odypassing &y their village. "rom my on o&servation from the community during the fieldor,! they are,eener on things that others loo, at them than hat they actually feel for themselves. %s a result Ifaced difficulties to find direct responses a&out open defection and as forced to change to indirectuestions to investigate these issues.  Existing situation of sanitation and types of toilet :ver E6? of the surveyed households replied that they have a toilet. The most common type of toiletin the rural 'thiopia is pit latrine. It is made of an eFcavated pit! superstructure and a sla& of localmaterial. %s shon in "igure ! the cover of the toilet is either thatched or corrugated iron sheetdepending on the economy of the household. +ometimes the all could &e covered ith plotline sheetand no roof at all. To ,eep the toilet free from fly &reeding and smell! ash is added after each use. %llthese are the efforts of the health eFtortion program. Discussion on the impact is uite challenging &utseeing people on the transition toards saniti9ed environment is eFiting. During data collection as,inga direct uestion to an individual as thought to give an anser. If as,ed do you defecate open! theanser as no ith ashamed gesture. /oever! in practice night soil as o&served here and there. Itas interesting to see people getting ashamed of open defecation. "igure ) Typical pit latrines in 'thiopia (1hoto &y authorBecause of this reason the uestions of survey ere changed to indirect uestions. Gather than as,inga person a&out oneself! they ere as,ed a&out the &ehavior of the community in general. The uestionas 0do you thin, open defection is practiced in your communityL4 /ence! a&out A=? of the sample&elieves that open defecation still eFists. This result is a &it higher than the report of the 3/: andU<IC'" (67A. The eFaggeration is &ecause of the research method. %s discussed earlier! thisresearch is made in the rural part of the country that did not address the ur&an situation. /and ashing is one of the &asic reuirements to ,eep saniti9ed environment. Moreover! it is one ofthe elements in the chec,list of /'3s. 3ashing during food preparation! food serving! &efore andafter meal! and after toilet are the important issues. /oever! in the survey the uestion a&out handash after toilet as the focus. %ccordingly! a&out A? respondents said e ash our hands aftertoilet. This result contradicts ith the figure of open defecation. To the maFimum the people that  DRY TOILET 2015 5 th  International Dry Toilet Conference supposed to get ater for hand ash is hen they use proper toilet. But the pressure from the /'3s isstill contri&uted for this inflated result. My argument for this is the o&served hand ash facilities. Most visited toilets have a plastic &ottle for hand ash service. et! none of these systems are givingservice in a proper ay see igure " . The &ottles loo,s deteriorated and never used for months! stillthey ant to have them at the toilets. The reason o&served from the field is that there is competitionamong villages for sanitation supervised &y the eFtension health or,ers. /ouseholders do not ant to&e em&arrassed &y missing of some reuirements of sanitation. They often placed the &ottles to satisfythe reuirement of supervision &y the /'3s. +urely! they are not &enefiting from it. %s to me! the/'3s should not focus on physical presence of sanitation facilities! &ut rather in &ehavioral changesin their evaluations. "igure =) Common hand ash facilities (1hoto &y author Traditional practice Geducing open defection is a challenge in the rural part of the country &ecause of the livelihood andnature of the daily activity. %s most of people are engaged in farming they do not stay in office or athome. "rom this perspective! it seems that it ill ta,e decades to get rid of open defecation for goodalthough the efforts are significant. /oever! the good nes is the tradition of the rural community inusing of night soil as fertili9er &y defecting in their on farm hen they gro nonra edi&le cropsli,e mai9e! sorghum and the li,es. Moreover! it is very easy to promote composting in the area sincethey have a trend of using animal manure as fertili9ed very commonly as shon in "igure A. "igure A) 1ractice of %nimal manure as fertili9er in Dega Damot District (1hoto &y author! 67=  Dry toilet and Ethiopia experience % 'U research pro2ect! Gesources :riented +anitation for periur&an %frica (G:+% introduced drytoilet in 'thiopia a decade ago. G:+% as conducted research piloting at %r&a Mininch incolla&oration of %r&a Minch University! selected municipalities and other Universities in %frica. Theo&2ective of the pro2ect as to introduce Urine Diversion Dry Toilet (UDDT to enhance saniti9edenvironment. /oever! the focus of the pro2ect as to periur&an areas! it &rought the idea of dealingith human aste as a source of fertili9e. Moreover! the research done on the urine utili9ation for cropgroth has shoed significant difference on production hen compared ith conventional ay ofcrop groing (G:+%! 66E and Mei9inger! et al. 66E. /and ash facilities
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