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  Peirce (Boston,1883), pp. 12–15.“Note on an Eight-term Logic Machine,” in Studies in Logic , ed. Charles S. Peirce (Boston,1883), p. 16.“A New Logic Machine,” Proceedings of theAmerican Academy of Arts and Sciences 21(1886): 303–7. Other Relevant WorksGreek Architecture (New York, 1909). Della Robbias in America (Princeton, N.J.,1912). Further Reading Appleton’s Cycl Amer Bio , Cambridge Dict Amer Bio , Dict Amer Bio , Nat Cycl AmerBio v37  , Who Was Who in Amer v1 Baldwin, James Mark. “Logical Machine,” in Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology , ed. James Mark Baldwin (New York, 1901), vol.3, pp. 28–30. Repr., Modern Logic 7 (1997):78–80.Buck, George H., and Stephen M. Hunka. “W.Stanley Jevons, Allan Marquand, and theOrigins of Digital Computing,” IEEE Annalsof the History of Computing  21(October–December 1999): 21–7.Ketner, Kenneth L., and Arthur F. Stewart. “TheEarly History of Computer Design: CharlesSanders Peirce and Marquand’s LogicalMachines,” Princeton University LibraryChronicle 45 (1984): 187–211.Peirce, Charles S. “Logical Machines,” American Journal of Psychology 1 (1887):165–70. Repr., Modern Logic 7 (1977): 71–7.Irving H. Anellis MARSHALL, Henry Rutgers (1852–1927)Henry Rutgers Marshall was born on 22 July1852 in New York City, and he died there on3 May 1927. Marshall attended ColumbiaUniversity, earning a BA in 1873 and an MA in1876. He began practicing architecture soonthereafter, and spent the next half-centurydesigning prominent structures – including theVorhees Library at Rutgers and “Naulakha,”Rudyard Kipling’s Vermont homestead – withhis characteristically ebullient style. He becamea member of the American Institute of Architects in 1882, a fellow in 1889, and servedas president of the New York chapter in 1902.He received an LHD from Rutgers in 1903. Inaddition to practicing architecture, Marshallprincipally studied at the intersection of aes-thetics and psychology. He lectured on art andbeauty at numerous Ivy League universities,and served as the Executive Secretary of NewYork’s Municipal Art Commission from 1919until the time of his death. Though he neverheld an academic position in psychology,Marshall was elected to membership at theAmerican Psychology Association’s firstmeeting, and served as its President in 1907.Marshall was an influential contemporaryof several leading academics, such as AlexanderBain, Mary C ALKINS , Josiah R OYCE , andEdward T ITCHENER . His most significant workwas Pain, Pleasure, and Aesthetics (1894),which William J AMES described as “epoch-making” and “full of shrewd and srcinal psy-chology,” and which George S ANTAYANA described as containing “notable contribu-tions” to philosophy.Marshall’s aesthetic theory argued thatbeauty is fundamentally a matter of the hedoniceffect produced by works of art, and he arguedthat there is no characteristic common to allbeautiful things, save for the power to bepleasing. Nonhedonistic aesthetic theories areinadequate, with objectivism being particularlybankrupt,because our aesthetic sense of beautyis a sort of subjective arousal. Marshall’s viewwas more complex than a mere bald sensual-ism, encouraging various standards of aestheticjudgment. Unlike ephemeral hedonic pleasures,aesthetic pleasures –ranging from perceivedimpressions to contemplative judgments–should exhibit stability across contexts.MARSHALL1625 =LLH 7L  ?B A?B  5RII C 3AQL?T LD 9LBC 0JCA? :ILPLMCP 1ILLJPRT :RIPE :82  :LRCPQ 4LLH 2CQ?I QQM-CLLHACQ?IMLRCPQALJIAPRIBCQ?I?AQL/BLA63.,,2C?QCB DLJ APRI L  --    2  L  M  T       E      Q                   1   I  L  L  J  P     R    T   :  R      I     P          E   :   8   2    0   I   I       E      Q  P    C  P  C    S  C   B   Marshall also held that the art-impulse is ameans of attraction, and that artistic expressionis “nature’s means of enforcing social consoli-dation” –wrestling with, but ultimately notendorsing, hedonism in ethics.Marshall viewed aesthetics as a specialbranch of introspective psychology dealing withalgedonics, the science of pleasure and pain.Anticipating aspects of A. N. W HITEHEAD ’smetaphysics, Marshall collapsed the distinc-tion between mental and physical hedonicstates. He surmised that pleasure and pain areneither sensations nor emotions – they are notexperiences, they qualify experiences – andsuggested that they constitute two poles of asingle qualitative continuum (the intermedi-ary being our default state of indifference).Marshall also developed a physiologicalaccount of pleasure and pain that corre-sponded with his aesthetic and psychologicaltheories, but this was shown to be empiricallyinadequate. This shortcoming overshadowedhis work as a whole and subsequentlyobscured his philosophical reputation.BIBLIOGRAPHY“The Field of Aesthetics PsychologicallyConsidered,” Mind  n.s. 1 (1892): 358–78,453–69.“Hedonic Aesthetics,” Mind  n.s. 2 (1893):15–41. Pain, Pleasure, and Aesthetics (New York,1894). Aesthetic Principles (New York, 1895). Instinct and Reason (New York, 1898).“The Relation of Aesthetics to Psychologyand Philosophy,” Philosophical Review 14(1905): 1–20. Consciousness (New York, 1909). Mind and Conduct  (New York, 1920). The Beautiful  (London, 1924). Further Reading Dict Amer Bio , Nat Cycl Amer Bio v11 , Who Was Who in Amer v1  James, William. “Marshall’s Pain andPleasure,” The Nation 59 (1894): 49–51.Kugelman, Robert. “IntrospectivePsychology, Pure and Applied: HenryRutgers Marshall on Pain and Pleasure,” History of Psychology 4 (2001): 34–58.Santayana, George. “Review of Marshall, Pleasure, Pain, and Aesthetics ,” Psychological Review 1 (1894): 411–15.Cory Wright MARTIN, Charles Burton (1924– )Charles B. Martin was born on 24 May 1924in Chelsea, Massachusetts. After graduatingwith a BA with distinction in philosophy atBoston University in 1948, he commenced aD.Phil. in philosophy, awarded in 1959,working with John Wisdom at the Universityof Cambridge. He then undertook furtherstudy with Gilbert Ryle at the University of Oxford from 1951 to 1953. Martin began in1954 what became a significant period of hislife in Australia. He was a lecturer and then areader at the University of Adelaide, and thenhe was appointed professor of philosophy atthe University of Sydney in 1966. He leftAustralia in 1971 to become professor of phi-losophy at the University of Calgary, andtaught there until retiring in 2001. He has beena visiting professor at many universities,including Harvard, Columbia, Michigan,Rochester, and Macquarie.In Religious Belief (1959), his first major pub-lication, Martin closely examines the claims of personal religious experience, and criticizes anydefense of religious belief that defined the exis-tence of “God” in terms of experience andpractice. As real, God would be independent of these. He argued against phenomenalism, too, asdefining reality in terms of experience. Againstthe objection that realism invites skepticism, heobserved that “ontological commitments entailontological embarrassments.”MARSHALL1626 =LLH 7L  ?B A?B  5RII C 3AQL?T LD 9LBC 0JCA? :ILPLMCP 1ILLJPRT :RIPE :82  :LRCPQ 4LLH 2CQ?I QQM-CLLHACQ?IMLRCPQALJIAPRIBCQ?I?AQL/BLA63.,,2C?QCB DLJ APRI L  --    2  L  M  T       E      Q                   1   I  L  L  J  P     R    T   :  R      I     P          E   :   8   2    0   I   I       E      Q  P    C  P  C    S  C   B 
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