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Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project

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Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project
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Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project (Final Report) CONSULTING ENGINEERS PLC May, 2011 Addis Ababa 1 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project Table of Content 1. INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT PROJECT LOCATION DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED WATER PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION PROJECT Deep well groundwater source development Transmission and distribution systems NATIONAL POLICIES AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK POLICY FRAMEWORK Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia National and Regional Conservation Strategy Environmental Policy of Ethiopia Water Resource Policy National Health Policy Land Tenure Policy LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK Establishment of Environmental Protection Organs (Proclamation No. 295/2002) Environmental Impact Assessment (Proclamation No. 299/2002) Environmental Pollution Control (Proclamation No. 300/2002) National Proclamation on Water Resources Management National Rural Land Administration and Use (Proclamation No. 456/2005) INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK The Environmental Protection Organs Federal Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) Ministry of Water Resources Other Relevant Bureaus at Regional and Woreda Level Woreda administrations SUMMARY OF THE WORLD BANK S SAFEGUARD POLICIES AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO THIS PROJECT METHODOLOGY IMPACT ASSESSMENT STEPS PROJECT ALTERNATIVES DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ENVIRONMENT PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Climate Topography of the project area Geology and Hydrology of the project area Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 2 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project Land Use Patterns Water Resources BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Terrestrial Vegetation Wildlife SOCIOECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Population and settlement Social services Industry, Commerce and Investment Water supply and Sanitation services Drainage system Religious, historical and archeological sites ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IDENTIFICATION, PREDICTION AND ANALYSIS APPROACHES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS ANALYSIS IMPACTS ON THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Impact on land use type and loss of income generation Impacts on terrestrial flora and fauna Impacts on soil Impact on Public Infrastructure Impact on traffic volume during construction and operation Air pollution and noise nuisance Impact of Spillage and disinfecting chemicals Stress on the Existing solid and liquid Waste Management facilities Impact on reservoirs IMPACTS ON SOCIO ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ON SETTLEMENTS Loss of sites of cultural and/or religious values Problem of Malaria Intensification Impact on Women Impacts on health Impacts on investment, trade and tourism MAJOR IMPACTS AND PROPOSED MITIGATION MEASURES MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS INVOLVING LOSS IN CROP GENERATED INCOMES MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS INVOLVING LOSS OF PERENNIAL CROPS (PRIVATE PROPERTY) MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS INVOLVING CHANGES IN TERRESTRIAL VEGETATION MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS INVOLVING WATER QUALITY MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS INVOLVING CHANGES IN RATES OF EROSION, SILTATION AND SOIL STRUCTURE MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS INVOLVING CHANGES IN DISEASE VECTOR POPULATION MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS INVOLVING DUST AND NOISE NUISANCE IMPACT OF SPILLAGE AND DISINFECTING CHEMICALS MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS INVOLVING ACCESS TO NATURAL RESOURCES (BOREHOLE WATER USE) MITIGATION MEASURES FOR IMPACTS ON RESERVOIRES Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 3 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project 9. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MANAGEMENT PLAN (ESMP) INSTITUTIONS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ESMP Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP related to design change Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the construction phase Responsibility for the implementation of ESMP in the operation phase COST ESTIMATE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MITIGATION MEASURES ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL MONITORING ANNEX IA: CENSUS TABLE OF AFFECTED PARTIES ANNEX II SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS ANNEX III LIST OF CONSULTED INSTITUTIONS ANNEX IV MINUTES OF THE PUBLIC CONSULTATION ANNEX V ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS ANNEX VI: ENVIRONMENTAL SCORES AND RANGE VALUES Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 4 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project ACRONYMS TOR I/s ITCZ Terms of Reference litre per second Inter Tropical Convergence Zone ºC Degree Centigrade Mm M millimetre meter M² Meter square M³ Meter cube M³/s T Km Km² T/km²/yr WHO Mg/ l Ha BH PVC EPA MoWR EWRMP Masl CSA IRE Meter cube per second Tone kilometre kilometre square Tone per kilometre square per year World Health Organization milligram per litre Hectare Bore Hole Poly Vinyl Chloride Environmental Protection Authority Ministry of Water Resource Ethiopian Water Resources Management Policy Meters above sea level Central Statistics Authority Immediate Rehabilitation and Expansion Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 5 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project RTI UTI WSS ESMP VIP ESIA HH TDS TL SL ESMF CSE REA EISR EIS OP WSS Respiratory Tract Infection Urinary Tract Infection Water Supply and Sanitation Environmental and Social Management Plan Ventilated Pit Latrine Environmental and Social impact Assessment Household Total Dissolved Solids Taste Less Smell Less Environmental and Social Management Framework Conservation Strategy of Ethiopia Regional Environmental Agency Environmental Impact Study Report Environmental Impact Statement Operational Programme Water Supply and Sanitation Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 6 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project List of tables Table 1: Geographic Location of the Boreholes Table 2: Population of Mekelle city from 1965 to Table 3: Number and level of schools available in Mekelle city Table 4: School enrollement ratio of Mekelle city Table 5: Primary Schools with and without a Water Source, Mekelle, 2007 Table 6: Number of Latrines, Primary School, Mekelle, 2007 Table 7: School dropout data obtained from the City education office Table 8: List of top ten diseases in Mekelle city Table 9: Houses to be impacted by Transmission line installation Table 10: Impact analysis Matrix for Mekelle Emergency Water Supply Project Table 11: Magnitude matrix showing the magnitude and significance of identified impacts from the project Table 12: Summary of Major impacts and proposed Mitigating Measures Table 13: Summary Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) Table 14: Cost estimates of mitigation measures Table 15: Environmental and social monitoring indicators, frequency of measurement and reporting List of figures Fig 1: Consultation underway at Mesebo Fig 2: Consultation underway at Gergenbes Fig 3: Partial view of lands devoid of vegetation cover Fig 4: Showing the remains from the times of King Amdetsion (Palace/Church?) at Quiha. Fig 5: Showing highly disturbed farmland at Quiha borehole and reservoir site Fig 6: Showing access road passing across area closure Fig 7: Showing farming fields with displaced top soil Fig 8: Showing soil sludge from drilling operations Fig 9: Showing Houses that can be affected by clearing for right of way Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 7 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project 1. Introduction In order to ensure sustainability of future development projects it is essential to integrate environmental and social concerns into the development process. Social and environmental assessment and management have been recognized as an effective tool for facilitating the inclusion of the principles of sustainable development into development projects. For this particular case an environmental consultant has been assigned to carry out environmental and social impact assessment study of the Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation project. The consultant has carried out the assignment as per the TOR provided to him by the Mekelle Water Supply Enterprise. In carrying out the assignment the consultant determined the scope of the ESIA study by completing the screening form as provided in Annex II. The study is expected to meet the requirements indicated in the Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF), the Project Implementation Manual (PIM), the Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) and other relevant operational policies of the World Bank. This EIA report outlines assessment of the baseline environment, prediction of significant environmental impacts and their mitigation measures for the project. Chapter one deals with a general introduction and provides background information regarding the water supply shortage problem of the city which underlies for the need of the Mekelle WSS project. A detailed description of the Mekelle water supply and sanitation project is presented in chapter two which is followed by the description of the overall policy, legal, and institutional issues that will either directly or indirectly affect the proposed project in the next chapter. The major environmental impact issues that will arise from the activities of the project are analysed in chapter seven and its proposed mitigation measures narrated in chapter eight. The Environmental and social management plan for the proposed project is presented in the last chapter. Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 8 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project 1.1Background Mekelle city is one of the regional capitals in Ethiopia which are experiencing huge expansion and transformation in the past decade and half. Its population size has doubled from 98,825 in 1994 to over 215,546 in 2007 (CSA, 2007). Correspondingly the city has experienced rapid growth and development in all social, economic, political and cultural spheres. Remarkable investments in construction of buildings, hotels, residential houses, higher education and health facilities, access roads and other marketing infrastructures and services have been undertaken. However, in spite of the rapid expansion and transformation, the water supply provision of the city has not proportionally developed to support the ever increasing demand. According to the assessment reports of the Tigray Water Resources, Mines and Energy Bureau the present daily water demand of the city is estimated to be about 41,000m 3, whereas the daily water production is only 14500m 3. It is apparently clear that the present daily water production accounts for 35% of the daily water demand of the city. Consequently, the city is presently found under severe shortage of water supply provision. As a result residents of the city and other members of the community have been expressing the problems they are facing in relation to shortage of water supply. The present Mekelle water supply and sanitation project is designed to respond to the current situation and it is driven by the urgent demands of the community. 1.2 Objectives The main objectives of the ESIA study is to describe the existing bio-physical and socio-cultural features of the proposed project environment, assess the potential positive and negative effects, and recommend appropriate mitigating measures that will avoid or minimize any undesirable effects expected to result from the construction and operation activities of the project. The study is aimed to ensure that the environmental and social effects of the project activities are adequately and appropriately addressed before decisions are made to implement them. Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 9 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project 2. Description of the Proposed Project 2.1 Project Location The project is located within the Enderta woreda and Mekelle Zone administration areas. Whereas the two important well fields (i.e. Dandera and Chinferes) are situated in the rural kebele s of Enderta woreda, the third well field is located in quiha town which by itself is part of the Mekelle zonal administration. Chinferes and Dandera are tiny villages found at a distance of about 20kms north and south of Mekelle city respectively. Quiha is also another small town found about 7kms south of mekelle. The project will install transmission mains and will build reservoirs to convey the water up to the distribution networks of Mekelle city. The final destination of the project is thus Mekelle city. Mekelle is located at about north and 39 0 east longitudinal. The specific geographic locations of the selected sites for drilling deep wells in each of the stated localities are shown as below. Table 1: Geographic Location of the Boreholes Name of the locality Borehole Identification Northing Easting 1 Chinferes BH Chinferes BH Chinferes BH Dandera Dandera well Quiha FPW The Mekelle water supply and sanitation project is one of the sub- projects that are financed by the World Bank. The overall objective of the WSS project is to increase access to sustainable water supply and sanitation services, for rural and urban users, through improved capacity of stakeholders in the sector and better management of water resources. Accordingly the Mekelle sub project is aimed at improving the severe shortage of water supply prevailing in the City. Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 10 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project The objective of Mekelle water supply and sanitation project is to improve the critical shortage of water supply of the city in the short term. Upgrading of the water supply systems of Mekelle city by adding more deep well groundwater sources will result in the improvement of the provision of adequate and safe water and will enhance its management capacity, while the installation of new transmission mains to the distribution network from Chinferes direction will considerably improve service delivery in the town. The Mekelle water supply and sanitation project will undertake the drilling of a total of five boreholes, build five reservoirs of different capacity, two booster statios, a collection chamber, installation of a total of over thirty Kms of transmission main, and also will build a pump house, guard house as well as generator houses in each of the borehole sites. Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 11 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project Map 1: Location of BH-1, BH-2, BH-3 at Chinferes wellfield and Sketch of the transmission lines and reservoirs (North Mekelle) Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 12 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project Map 2: Location of FPW-9 and Dandera borehole and sketch of the transmission line and reservoirs (South Mekelle) Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 13 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project 2.2 Description of the proposed water production and distribution project Deep well groundwater source development The water supply project of Mekelle city involves drilling of five deep boreholes. These include the three boreholes drilled in Chinferes site, one borehole in Dandera and another one in Quiha well field. The three borehole sites in chinferes area are clustered within a radius of less than one kilometre. The drilling and development of these deep boreholes is expected to provide an aggregate of 185 l/s additional water to the city. This in turn is expected to raise the current water production from 14,500 m3/day to 27,500 m 3 /day accounting for 68% of the daily water demand of the city. Besides drilling, development of the groundwater source also includes installation of submersible pumps into the boreholes, installation of surface pumps to transfer the water to the reservoirs, extending power supply from the grid to each of the boreholes, and installation of stand-by generators. In addition, construction of Electro-Mechanical and Guard house will be conducted in each of the borehole sites Transmission and distribution systems The new groundwater sources will be connected to the existing water supply distribution system of the city in two directions. The deep boreholes developed on the Chinferes well field will be connected to the main water reservoir found in the head office of the regional water bureau on the northern side of Mekelle. The boreholes developed on Dandera and Quiha sites will be finally connected to the existing 2000m 3 reservoir located near the air force camp on the southern side of Mekelle. The transmission main that will connect the deep boreholes on Chinferes well field will have two sections and a total length of 20kms. The first section constitutes the rising transmission main which conveys the water up to the 5000m 3 reservoir which will be located at the top of Messebo Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 14 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project hill. This first section rising transmission main is estimated to have a length of 10kms. In addition to the 5000m 3 reservoir a booster station will be built nearly halfway between the boreholes and the 5000m 3 reservoir to push the water up to the mesobo hill. This first section of the transmission main will have two parallel lines which will transfer the water from the three boreholes. The water from BH-1 and BH-2 will be first pumped into a collection chamber that will be constructed at the River bank of Ruba Wushti. Then the water will be pumped again to the booster station through a transmission main dedicated to it. On the other hand, the water from BH-3 will be pumped to the booster station using another transmission main that will be installed parallel to the first. The water from the three boreholes will be pumped up the hill from the booster station to the 5000m 3 reservoir. The second section of the transmission main starts from the mesebo 5000m 3 reservoir and extends up to the existing reservoir at the head office of the regional water bureau in Mekelle city. This section of the transmission main essentially uses gravity to convey the water into the existing distribution system. Whereas most of the areas crossed by the second section of the Chinferes transmission main are reported to be incorporated in the Master plan of Mekelle city, its first section passes through rural areas that have no access road. The absence of access road in this section is particularly noticeable in the areas between St. Marry Church of Mariam Dehan Village and the 5000m 3 reservoir. The stretch without access road is estimated to be about 6-8kms. The Mekelle water supply and sanitation project will install another 10km long transmission main to connect the Dandera and Quiha (FPW9) boreholes to the existing distribution system. The water from Dandera borehole will be first conveyed by a separate transmission main to a 100m 3 reservoir built near the FPW9 borehole at Quiha. The water from FPW9 borehole, which is only about 50m away, is also conveyed to the same reservoir. The water collected from the two boreholes will be transferred via single transmission main to the existing 2000m 3 reservoir found near the air force camp. Two additional reservoirs and booster stations will be constructed at intermediate sites to facilitate the transmission of the water up to the 2000m 3 reservoir. The total length of the transmission main to be installed is about 10kms long. Tequam T/Mariam and Zereu Girmay Page 15 Social and Environmental Impact Assessment of Mekelle Water Supply and Sanitation Project The route of
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