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Estratégias do Sector Público no Combate à Pobreza

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Maria Asensio & Belén Rando Congresso Internacional del Centro Latinoamericano de Administración para el Desarollo (CLAD) sobre la Reforma del Estado y de la Administración Pública Santo Domingo, República Dominicana, 9-12 de Novembro 2010.
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  8 Fwzyhzënkhw jo Wfgzoy Pñilkgo co Gobihzf à Poiyfqh 8   Iflëc Yhcjo f Bhyâh Hwfcwko 8#   Kczyojvîço1 Hw Polâzkghw Pñilkghw co Gobihzf à Poiyfqh Vb jow flfbfczow jh yfhlkjhjf ocjf wço bhkw }kwâ}fkw ow h}hcîow ov yfzyogfwwow cojfwfc}ol}kbfczo wogkhl jf vb phâw ë co nyhv fb xvf h poiyfqh hvbfczh ov jkbkcvk# Ow kcjkghjoyfwjh poiyfqh phwwhyhb h ogvphy vb lvnhy pyofbkcfczf ch hnfcjh wogkhl jow phâwfw gob jkmfyfczfcâ}fl jf yfcjkbfczo $OGJF, 9004+# Hw polâzkghw chw èyfhw jh pyozfgîço wogkhl f kcglvwço wogkhlfcgoczyhb wf pfyhczf kbpoyzhczfw jfwhmkow# H gocgoyyácgkh à fwghlh nloihl, o kbphgzo jhw co}hwzfgcolonkhw f o fc}fldfgkbfczo jfbonyèmkgo gocmknvyhb h gocavczvyh polâzkgh h locno pyhqo# Cokbfjkhzo dè xvf jhy yfwpowzh h vbh wkzvhîço jf gyfwgkbfczo lfczo, jfwfbpyfno f jfwknvhljhjfwwogkhkw# H pyogvyh jf pyonyhbhw phyh mhqfy mhgf h fwzfw jfwhmkow phwwh cfgfwwhykhbfczf pflo yfmoyîojh no}fychîço, jh zyhcwphyácgkh f jh phyzkgkphîço goczâcvh jow hnfczfw# Vb ovzyo mhgzoyjfzfybkchczf phyh pozfcgkhy h fmkgègkh f h fmkgkácgkh jhw polâzkghw pñilkghw f phyh h}hcîhybow cowfczkjo jh gocwzyvîço jf vbh wogkfjhjf ghjh }fq bhkw kcglvwk}h ë h boiklkqhîço jo gocavczo jhwogkfjhjf, kwzo ë, jhw wvhw fwzyvzvyhw f jo gocavczo jf gkjhjçow f gkjhjçw, how bhkw jk}fywow câ}fkw,co fwmoyîo phyh yfwol}fy ow pyoilfbhw wogkhkw f gocwzyvky wogkfjhjfw bhkw avwzhw f fxvkzhzk}hw f gobvb jfwfc}ol}kbfczo wvwzfczè}fl, fb wvbh, bhkw gofwhw#O oiafgzk}o jfwzh gobvckghîço ë hchlkwhy hw polâzkghw pñilkghw co gobihzf à poiyfqh fb Poyzvnhl#Ftkwzfb }èykow mvcjhbfczow phyh fwzhiflfgfy fwwh jflkbkzhîço jo fwzvjo# Fb pykbfkyo lvnhy, ogobihzf à poiyfqh fb Poyzvnhl gocwzkzvk, cow py÷tkbow hcow, o oiafgzk}o pykoykzèyko jhw polâzkghwxvf nloihl f wfgzoykhlbfczf jf}fb fcxvhjyhy f gocjvqky o pyogfwwo jf ifb fwzhy wogkhl# Fbwfnvcjo lvnhy, o Fwzhjo jfwfbpfcdh vb phpfl jf fwpfgkhl yflf}écgkh, vbh }fq xvf hw polâzkghw cowjobâckow jh fjvghîço, jh whñjf, jh pyozfgîço wogkhl, jo hpoko à kcmécgkh f à zfygfkyh kjhjf, jhfjvghîço f moybhîço jhw pfwwohw gob jfmkgkácgkh f jo hvtâlko how jfwfbpyfnhjow wf gocwzkzvfbgobo pykoykjhjfw co gobihzf à poiyfqh# Fb zfygfkyo lvnhy, ftkwzf bvkzh lkzfyhzvyh woiyf o mfc÷bfcojh poiyfqh bhw ftkwzfb povgow fwzvjow xvf kjfczkmkxvfb jf moybh glhyh xvhkw wço hw fwzyhzënkhw jfpolâzkghw pñilkghw fmkghqfw phyh gobihzfy h poiyfqh f hw co}hw moybhw jf ftglvwço wogkhl# Fwzfzyhihldo kjfczkmkgh vb gocavczo jf pyfwwvpowzow kbpoyzhczfw co jfwfcdo jhw fwzyhzënkhw jfkczfy}fcîço co ghbpo jhw polâzkghw pñilkghw jf gobihzf à poiyfqh fb Poyzvnhl# 9#   Fwzyhzënkhw Polâzkghw co Gobihzf à Poiyfqh H pyoilfbèzkgh jh poiyfqh fc}ol}f jkbfcwöfw polâzkghw, wogkhkw f gvlzvyhkw, wfcjo kchjfxvhjofwzvjè lh ftglvwk}hbfczf jfwjf o poczo jf }kwzh fgoc÷bkgo# Jfwjf vbh pfywpfgzk}h wogkol÷nkgh$kwzo ë, h kczfypyfzhîço jh jkcébkgh wogkhl fb zfybow jf hzykivkîço jow yfgvywow ftkwzfczfw phyhwhzkwmhqfy jh bfldoy moybh hw bñlzkplhw cfgfwwkjhjfw jow wfyfw dvbhcow+, ë pyfgkwo hioyjhy gobvbh bhkoy gobplftkjhjf h hcèlkwf jh wkzvhîço jh poiyfqh f h wvh kcglvwço co bfko wogkhl, phyhpojfy fcgoczyhy ftplkghîöfw woiyf h kcgkjácgkh jh bfwbh, h wvh kczfcwkjhjf, wf}fykjhjf fpfywkwzácgkh#Pojfbow kjfczkmkghy xvhzyo bojflow ièwkgow phyh hchlkwhy ow pyogfwwow jf poiyfqh f jf ftglvwçowogkhl# Fwzfw bojflow, xvf cfb wfbpyf wf fcgoczyhb fb fwzhjo pvyo, pojfb wfy kjfczkmkghjow pflhjfwknchîço jf bojflo jf omfyzh, bojflo jf pyogvyh, bojflo dkwz÷ykgo bhzfykhlkwzh f bojflodkwz÷ykgo kcwzkzvgkochl# Fcxvhczo ow jokw pykbfkyow jkqfb yfwpfkzo ho mvcgkochbfczo fgoc÷bkgo fb 8 O pyfwfczf hyzkno mok hpyfwfczhjo co GLHJ gob hw wfnvkczfw yfmfyácgkhw1 “Fwzyhzënkhw jo Wfgzoy Pñilkgo co Gobihzf à Poiyfqh‒, hpyfwfczhjh co Gocnyfwwo Kczfychgkochl jfl Gfczyo Lhzkcohbfykghco jf Hjbkckwzyhgk÷c phyh fl Jfwhyollo $GLHJ+ woiyf lh Yfmoybhjfl Fwzhjo { jf lh Hjbkckwzyhgk÷c Pñilkgh, Whczo Jobkcno, Yfpñilkgh Jobkckghch, ; 89 jf Co}fbiyo 9080#  9 wk py÷pyko, wfb hzfcjfy à chzvyfqh ov }kcgvlhîço gob o goczftzo wogkhl, ow jokw ñlzkbow kczfypyfzhbh chzvyfqh jo gobpoyzhbfczo fgoc÷bkgo f h wvh kcglvwço co bfko wogkhl nfyhl, fcgoczyhcjo chwyflhîöfw fczyf hbiow vbh }kh phyh ftplkghy h jkcébkgh golfgzk}h# Jf moybh wkbplkmkghjh f wfbfczyhy fb jfzhldfw, hpyfwfczhb wf ow zyhîow nfyhkw jow xvhzyo bojflow#O  bojflo jf omfyzh gocgfczyh h wvh hzfcîço co lhjo jh omfyzh f ch wvh ghphgkjhjf phyh ftplkghy hwghvwhw jh ykxvfqh golfgzk}h, jo ifb fwzhy f ovzyhw xvfwzöfw yflhgkochjhw# Jf hgoyjo gob fwzfbojflo, h omfyzh gykh h wvh py÷pykh pyogvyh# O mvcgkochbfczo fgoc÷bkgo fwzè jfzfybkchjo pflogobpoyzhbfczo hvz÷cobo jh omfyzh, à xvhl wf hjhpzh h pyogvyh# Poyzhczo, ow yfwvlzhjow jfpfcjfyçojh ftkwzácgkh jow yfgvywow pyojvzk}ow, jo zkpo jf yfgvywow ftkwzfczfw f jf gobo fwzfw wfahbvzklkqhjow# Hw wogkfjhjfw bhkw pyojvzk}hw omfyfgfyço bfldoyfw yfwvlzhjow, pfybkzkcjo whzkwmhqfy jfmoybh bhkw gobplfzh hw cfgfwwkjhjfw ièwkghw dvbhchw $Ghbkchjh, Novjw~hhyj - Mowzfy, 9080+#Cfwzf wfczkjo, h kcgkjácgkh jh poiyfqh fwzè jfzfybkchjh pflhw ghyhgzfyâwzkghw f pflhw ghphgkjhjfwpyojvzk}hw chgkochkw, bhw zhbiëb pflo gocavczo jf yfgvywow pyojvzk}ow jf xvf pojf vwvmyvky hpopvlhîço# H kcgkjácgkh jh poiyfqh wfyè bfcoy cvbh wogkfjhjf fb xvf h popvlhîço zfcdh hgfwwo hbhkw yfgvywow pyojvzk}ow f fwzfw wfahb bfldoy vzklkqhjow# Poy ovzyh phyzf, hw pfwwohw xvf záb hgfwwohow yfgvywow gocwfnvfb zfy yfcjkbfczow bhkw flf}hjow, whzkwmhqfcjo hw wvhw cfgfwwkjhjfw# Owyfgvywow chzvyhkw, o ghpkzhl, ow yfgvywow dvbhcow, h zfgcolonkh, ow gocdfgkbfczow, hw dhiklkjhjfw,fzg#, zoychb wf flfbfczow kcjkwpfcwè}fkw# Wf ftkwzfb kcjk}âjvow poiyfw ë poyxvf ghyfgfb jfyfgvywow pyojvzk}ow $gocjkîöfw mâwkghw phyh zyhihldhy, gocdfgkbfczow, mfyyhbfczhw, fzg#+ ov cçohplkghb ow bfwbow jf moybh hjfxvhjh $poy kczfymfyácgkhw ftzfychw, kcgfczk}ow wogkhkw cço goc}fckfczfw…+# Cfwzf goczftzo, o jkcdfkyo hgzvh gobo vb flfbfczo jf zyogh, wfb hmfgzhy hghphgkjhjf pyojvzk}h, ov wfah, ë cfvzyhl#Hw pykcgkphkw jkbfcwöfw xvf bhyghb ow pyogfwwow jf ftglvwço wogkhl pflo lhjo jh omfyzh wço hwwfnvkczfw1 8+ H hvwácgkh jf yfcjkbfczo5 9+ Hw polâzkghw jf pyozfgîço xvf bhyghb wkzvhîöfw jfkcwfyîço ov jf cço kcwfyîço pflo mhgzo jf hw mhbâlkhw zfyfb hgfwwo ov cço how ifcw f wfy}kîow5 7+ Hkcwfyîço co bfyghjo jf zyhihldo, xvf cço w÷ fc}ol}f o hgfwwo h vb yfcjkbfczo, bhw zhbiëb h vbhkjfczkjhjf f jknckjhjf wogkhl5 :+ H jkbfcwço jow lhîow wogkhkw f bfghckwbow jf wolkjhykfjhjf fyfgkpyogkjhjf#Jhâ xvf wf jfmfcjh h kjfkh jf xvf h fjvghîço ë o yfbëjko mhgf à poiyfqh f wf pyopocdh yfjvqky hkczfymfyácgkh fwzhzhl, phyh cço lkbkzhy ov jkwzoygfy ow kcgfczk}ow xvf bozk}hb h hplkghîço jowyfgvywow pyojvzk}ow yflhzk}ow à popvlhîço, ow kcgfczk}ow xvf pyobo}hb h gocgoyyácgkh, ow xvfmobfczfb h mlftkiklkjhjf jow bfyghjow phyh bfldoyhy h hzykivkîço jf yfgvywow f ow xvfkbpvlwkocfb o hvzo fbpyfno $Hl}fw f Bfcjfw, 900:+# Jf hgoyjo gob fwzf bojflo, h ftkwzácgkh jfpoiyfqh cvbh wogkfjhjf py÷wpfyh jf}f wf ho mhgzo jf xvf h popvlhîço hzkcnkjh cço yfñch hwgocjkîöfw hjfxvhjhw $poy jofcîh, }fldkgf, oymhcjhjf, fzg#+ ov jf xvf fwzh cço powwh kcwfyky wf cowkwzfbh pyojvzk}o, poy ftknácgkhw pfwwohkw flf}hjhw, fzg# Ow câ}fkw jf yfcjkbfczo ihktow pojfyçohvbfczhy hzyh}ëw jh moybhîço# Poy ovzyh phyzf, jf vb poczo jf }kwzh golfgzk}o, hw jkmkgvljhjfw pflolhjo jh omfyzh pojfb gocjkgkochy o pyogfwwo nfyhl, pyojvqkcjo vb hvbfczo jh kcgkjácgkh jhpoiyfqh gobo gocwfxvácgkh jf vb hvbfczo ftzyhoyjkcèyko jow gvwzow jf pyojvîço, jh fwghwwfq, jhxvfjh jh pyojvzk}kjhjf, fzg#O  bojflo jf pyogvyh ,   ho xvhl fwzè }kcgvlhjh h mknvyh jf Ef{cfw $8;70+, gocgfczyh h wvh hzfcîçochw gocjkîöfw f powwkiklkjhjfw jh jfwpfwh jfczyo jh wogkfjhjf# Cfwzh pfywpfgzk}h, pojfb ftkwzkyyfgvywow pyojvzk}ow wvmkgkfczfw f ow bfwbow cço wfyfb vzklkqhjow poy ghvwh jh mhlzh jf vbh pyogvyhxvf pyobo}h h vzklkqhîço jow bfwbow, wfcjo, cfwzf ghwo, ihwzhczf jkmâgkl xvf ow pyoilfbhw wfyfwol}hb jf moybh fwpoczécfh $Fwpkcn Hcjfywfc - 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