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Evaluating the Impact of the Informal Economy on Businesses in South East Europe: Some Lessons from the 2009 World Bank Enterprise Survey

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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the variable impacts of the informal economy on businesses and employment relations in South East Europe. Evidence is reported from the 2009 World Bank Enterprise Survey which interviewed 4,720 businesses located
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    Publisher: School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo Editorial Board Editor: Dževad Šehić Members of Editorial:  Nijaz BajgorićBesim Ćulahović Editorial Assistant: Jasna Kovačević Members of International Editorial Board Sefik Alp Bahadir Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Faculty of Business Administration, Economics and Social Sciences Vesna Bojičić-Dželilović London School of Economics - Centre for the Study of Global Governance Refik Culpan Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, School of Business Administration Zoran Ivanović Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija Vladimir Gligorov  The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (WIIW) Hasan Hanić Union University, Belgrade Banking Academy Marijan Karić ”J.J. Strossmayer” University of Osijek, Faculty of Economics Siniša Kušić J.W. Goethe University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Frankfurt/Main Eric C. Martin School of Management, Bucknell University Ellen McMahon National-Louis University, Chicago Shirley J. Gedeon University of Vermont, Department of Economics Janez Prašnikar University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics Kathleen Marshall Park  Massachusetts Institute of Technology Emir Kamenica  The University of Chicago Booth School of Business Darko Tipurić University of Zagreb, Faculty of Economics and Business Maks Tajnikar University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics Stuart A. Umpleby   The George Washington University, School of Business   Lector and Corrector:  Michael Mehen    The South East European Journal of Economics and Business (SEE Journal) focuses on issues importan tovarious economics and business disciplines, with a special emphasis on South East European andtransition countries.For articles to be considered for the SEE Journal, authors should submit manuscripts electronically, asMS Word attachments, to the Editor, at this e-mail address: seejournal@efsa.unsa.ba. Submissions alsoshould include an indication of the author’s background or position. Articles are considered forpublication if they have not been published or accepted for publication elsewhere and have not beenconcurrently submitted elsewhere. For more submission information, see the Guide for Submission of Manuscripts at the end of each issue or on the SEE Journal website. Other correspondences or inquiriesto the editor should be directed to Jasna Kovacevic, Editorial assistant, e-mail: jasna.kovacevic@efsa.unsa.ba or prof. dr. Dževad Šehić e-mail: dzevad.sehic@efsa.unsa.ba.The South East European Journal of Economics and Business, ISSN 1840-118X, is published semiannuallyby the School of Economics and Business, University of Sarajevo, Trg Oslobodjenja - Alija Izetbegovic 1,71 000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.Copyright © by the School of Economics and Business, University of Sarajevo. All rights reserved. Noportion of the contents may be reproduced in any form without written permission from the publisher.All correspondence should be addressed to The South East European Journal of Economics andBusiness. School of Economics and Business, Trg Oslobodjenja-Alija Izetbegovic 1, 71 000 Sarajevo,Bosnia and Herzegovina, telephone and fax: 00-387-33-275-953, e-mail: seejournal@efsa.unsa.ba;http://www.efsa.unsa.ba/see.Abstracting and Indexing: This Journal is regularly indexed and abstracted by databases EconLit andBusiness Source Complete. It is available in a PDF format from the website of the School of Economicsand Business, Sarajevo http://www.efsa.unsa.ba. SEE Journal articles are also available from Versitahttp://www.versita.com and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) http://www.doaj.org.Copyright Permission: Permission requests to photocopy or otherwise reproduce copyrighted materialcan be submitted via: seejournal@efsa.unsa.ba..    April 2012 3   3 Content   . Content Business Cycle Synchronization in Croatia Zdravko Šergo , Amorino Poropat , Jasmina Gržinić 29   Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Institutional TrainingProgram in Slovenia: A Comparison of Methods Laura Juznik Rotar 43   Cross-National Variations in the Under-Reporting of Wages in South-East Europe: A Result of Over-Regulationor Under-Regulation? Colin C. Williams 53   A Feasibility Study for Six SigmaImplementation in Turkish Textile SMEs Mehmet Tolga Taner 63   Is Basel III a Panacea?Lessons from the Greek Sovereign Fiscal Crisis Spyros Vassiliadis, Diogenis Baboukardos, Panagiotis Kotsovolos   73   Residential Characteristics of Armed-Forces Personnel and theUrban Economy: Evidence from a Medium Sized City in Greece Dimitrios Skouras†, Paschalis A. Arvanitidis, Christos Kollias 81   Corruption, Licensing andElections – A New Analysis Framework  Drini Imami 93   Historical Legacies and Foreign Direct Investment in Bosniaand Herzegovina Joel I. Deichmann 7    Selection and Implementation of ERP Systems: A Comparisonof SAP implementation between BIH and Turkey Seyda Findik, Ali Osman Kusakci, Fehim Findik, Sumeyye Kusakci 19   Evaluating the Impact of the Informal Economy on Businessesin South East Europe: Some Lessons from the 2009 World Bank Enterprise Survey John Hudson, Colin C Williams, Marta Orviska, Sara Nadin 99      . From the Editor   4 SEE Journal  From the Editor It is with great sadness that we inform you that ourfounding member of the editorial board, prof. dr BesimĆulahović, passed away in Sarajevo on February 25 th of this year. We will miss his dedication to contribute to thedevelopment of the South East Journal of Economics andBusiness. All faculty members of School of Economics andBusiness in Sarajevo are going to miss prof. Ćulahović'sintellectual and moral integrity. The current issue of theJournal is dedicated to this great scholar.Joel I. Deichmann in the paper titled „Historical Legaciesand Foreign Direct Investment in Bosnia andHerzegovina“ examines the srcins of foreign directinvestment (FDI) in Bosnia and Herzegovina with specialreference to historical legacies. Because Bosnia andHerzegovina has spent time under the Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, and Yugoslav flags, particular attention is paidto the role of history in impacting inflows of FDI. Fivemodels are specified using various dependent variablesto measure FDI, and all uphold the importance of historical legacies and cultural proximity. Equallyinteresting is the absence of significance amongtraditional gravity variables in this unique investmentlandscape. Policy implications include the need forgovernment to assist firms in overcoming concern aboutinstability, corruption, and a complex permitting process.“Selection and Implementation of ERP Systems: AComparison of SAP Implementation between B&H andTurkey” is the paper written by Seyda Findik, Ali OsmanKusakci, Fehim Findik, and Sumeyye Kusakci. The authorsdiscuss the selection and implementation of ERP Systems.The ERP concept, the selection process, and theimportance of selecting a certain ERP solution for thecompanies are also dealt with. After the literature reviewof ERP implementation strategies, the authors review thesurvey that was conducted among several large and mid-size companies that adopted SAP, one of the major ERPsolutions, in their businesses in Bosnia and Herzegovinaand Turkey. In the final section, a comparison is madebetween Turkish and Bosnian companies. While the studyindicates some differences in implementation strategiesand major benefits, similarities between the twocountries are more pronounced.The third paper in this issue of the Journal is “BusinessCycle Synchronization in Croatia.” It is written by ZdravkoŠergo, Amorino Poropat, and Jasmina Gržinić. Theauthors analyze business cycle synchronization in theCroatian economy, using various annualized growth ratevariables over a period of eighteen years (1992-2010), de-trended by Hodrick-Prescott filter and following theHarding and Pagan methodological procedure indetermination of its turning points. The conceptualanalysis of synchronization is based on the technique of concordance indexes and correlation coefficientsobtained by the HAC estimators. The main result of theresearch shows that there is a high degree of probabilitythat dismissal of employees in the Croatian economy willcoincide with the contraction phase in industry. The cyclicphase of growth in job creation in great measurecoincides with the cyclic phase of growth in export andconstruction sector and also with tourist arrivals. There isalmost perfect synchronization between the cyclic phasesof the construction sector and import.Laura Juznik Rotar in the paper titled “Evaluating theEffectiveness of an Institutional Training Program inSlovenia: A Comparison of Methods” aims to estimate theeffect of an institutional training program on participants'chances of finding a job, using a rich dataset which comesfrom the official records of the Employment Service of Slovenia and taking into account the potential bias due tothe existence of unobserved confounding factors. To dealwith these selection biases, three methods areimplemented in a comparative perspective: (1)instrumental variable (IV) regression; (2) Heckman's two-stage approach and (3) propensity score matching. Theauthor points to several important divergences betweenthe results of parametric and non-parametric estimators.    April 2012 . 5   5 From the Editor   Some of the results indicate that the institutional trainingprogram impacts participants' chances of finding a job,especially in the short run. In the long run, however, theresults are not so obvious.The fifth manuscript is “Cross-National Variations in theUnder-Reporting of Wages in South East Europe: A Resultof Over-Regulation or Under-Regulation?“ Author, ColinC. Williams, seeks to explain the cross-national variationsin the tendency of employers in South East Europe tounder-report the wages of their employees by payingthem two wages, an official declared salary and anadditional undeclared envelope wage. Reporting theresults of a 2007 Eurobarometer survey of this practiceundertaken in five South East European countries, thefinding is that the commonality of this illicit wage practicemarkedly varies cross-nationally, with 23 percent of formal employees in Romania but just 3 percent in Cyprusreceiving an under-reported salary. Finding that theunder-reporting of wages is more prevalent in neo-liberaleconomies with lower levels of state intervention and lesscommon in more ‘welfare capitalist’ economies in whichthere is greater state intervention in work and welfare,the resultant conclusion is that the under-reporting of employees wages by employers is correlated with theunder- rather than over-regulation of work and welfare.The sixth article in this issue of the Journal is titled “AFeasibility Study for Six Sigma Implementation in TurkishTextile SMEs”. Mehmet Tolga Taner investigates theCritical Success Factors (CSFs) for the successfulintroduction of Six Sigma in Small and Medium SizedTurkish Textile Enterprises. A survey-based approach isused in order to identify and understand the currentquality practices of the Small and Medium SizedEnterprises (SMEs). CSFs and impeding factors areidentified and analyzed. The involvement andcommitment of top management, linking qualityinitiatives to employee and information technology andinnovation are found to be important CSFs to the textileSMEs. The leadership and commitment of topmanagement, strategic vision, and data collection andmeasurement are found to be the most CSFs forsuccessful introduction of Six Sigma, whereas the lack of knowledge of the system to initiate and the presence of the ISO-certification in the company hinder itsimplementation. Lack of qualified personnel andincompetency with new technologies are found to lowerthe performance of Turkish textile SMEs.Spyros Vassiliadis, Diogenis Baboukardos, and PanagiotisKotsovolos contribute the paper “Is Basel III Panacea?Lessons from the Greek Sovereign Fiscal Crisis. In theperiod 2007-2009 the global economy faced the mostsevere crisis after the Great Recession of 1929. In theaftermath of the crisis a substantially revised version of Basel II, named Basel III, was proposed, introducing new,tighter capital adequacy and liquidity guidelines. Basel IIIconstitutes the new basic embankment against a possiblecrisis in the future. The same period those discussionswere taken place for the new global regulatoryframework, the most severe sovereign debt crisis thecountry ever faced, burst out in Greece. Considering theGreek banking sector as the starting point and the effectsof the fiscal crisis on the sector, this paper discusses thenew Basel III guidelines and their possible implications intimes of turmoil. The new framework can play a crucialrole in deterring a new financial crisis; however it shouldnot be regarded as panacea for all the shortcomings of banking sectors.“Residential Characteristics of Armed-Forces Personneland the Urban Economy: Evidence from a Medium SizedCity in Greece” is authored by Dimitrios Skouras, DimitriosSkouras, and Christos Kollias. The paper explores thelocation and residential decisions of Greek militaryhouseholds. To achieve this, primary data were collectedby means of a questionnaire survey addressed to militarypersonnel located in Volos, a medium-sized Greek city inthe greater area of which a number of major military
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