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Grade 10 Science Unit 2 Lesson 4 Chemical Bonding. 2. An atom has a neutral charge. Therefore the number of protons = the number of electrons

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Chemical Bonding We know many things about atoms. 1. Atoms consist of three very small parts:? PRTN with a positive charge (+)? NEUTRN with no charge? ELECTRN with a negative charge (-) 2. An atom has
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Chemical Bonding We know many things about atoms. 1. Atoms consist of three very small parts:? PRTN with a positive charge (+)? NEUTRN with no charge? ELECTRN with a negative charge (-) 2. An atom has a neutral charge. Therefore the number of protons = the number of electrons 3. The protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of the atom, while the electrons are found in orbits surrounding the nucleus. 4. The negative electrons are attracted to the nucleus by the positive charge of the protons in the nucleus. 5. Each orbit has a MAIMUM NUMBER of electrons it can hold.? rbit #1 can hold up to two (2) electrons? rbit #2 can hold up to eight (8) electrons? rbit #3 can hold up to eight (8) electrons 6. The electrons in the outermost orbit are called the VALENCE ELECTRN. 7. An element with the maximum number of electrons in its outer orbit is TABLE. An element without the maximum number of electrons in its outer orbit is UNTABLE. 8. Electrons can move from one element to another. 9. To become stable (i.e., get the maximum number of electrons in its outer orbit), an element will GAIN or LE electrons. 10. If an element gains or loses electrons, it is called an IN 11. If an ion gains electrons, it has more negative charges than positive charges. Thus, it is a NEGATIVE IN. kewise if an ion loses electrons, it has fewer negative charges than positive charges. It is a PITIVE IN. 12. The bonding of a negative ion and a positive ion is called an INIC BND. Bohr-Rutherford Diagrams Elements and Ions Task For each element listed, identify the ATMIC NUMBER, draw the Bohr-Rutherford Diagram for the ELEMENT and the IN, and identify the INIC CHARGE of the ion Element me Atomic Number Bohr-Rutherford Diagram Element Ion Ionic xygen odium Chlorine uminum ulfur thium How Atoms Form Ions - Activity As you become more familiar with the periodic table, you will realize it is easy to predict many oxidation numbers. Complete the following table using the periodic table in the back of your textbook. Remember, the oxidization number represents the charge that an atom would have if electrons were transferred completely to or from the atom. xidization Numbers for ome Common Ions Ion None -1-2 Ar B Ba Be Br Cs Ca F H I Mg Ne K Kr Rn e r e 1. What about Carbon (C) and ilicon (i)? They are four electrons away in either direction. What bonds do these atoms form? 2. n our table, Argon (Ar), Helium (H) and Krypton (Kr) would be placed in the column None. What common characteristic do these atoms share? How Atoms Form Ions More Ideas and Definitions As you know, elements can be composed of atoms or molecules. Iron is an individual atom, while oxygen gas ( 2 ) is two atoms joined to form a molecule. ome compounds are also composed of molecules. Ammonia gas (NH 3 ) is a compound consisting of four atoms. Many compounds are a combination of ions. An IN is a charged atom in which the number of protons is different from the number of electrons. RECALL, every atom has one electron for every proton in its nucleus. Carbon has an Atomic Number 6. Thus, carbon has six protons and six electrons. The electrons occur in obits or shells around the nucleus. The outermost obit is called the VALENCE LEVEL. Atoms combine to fill the valence level. This makes the atom more stable. More stable means they have a lower energy state. For example, chlorine () has seven valence electrons in its outer orbit. To be stable, chlorine must have eight electrons in this Valence Level. Chlorine gains an electron. Now, chlorine has 17 protons and 18 electrons. Thus, the chlorine ion has a negative charge. ince it added one electron, the charge of the chlorine ion is -1. Chlorine is a negative ion. Where did chlorine gets its extra electron from? Chlorine took the electron from a positive ion an atom needing to lose electrons to fill its Valence Level. Chemical Formula A combination of symbols and subscripts that represent the ratio of elements in a compound. Ionic Compound A compound composed of two parts: a positive part and a negative part. Polyatomic Ion A group of atoms that form a unit that stays together and carries an overall ionic charge Chemistry How Atoms Form Ions Teacher Answers As you become more familiar with the periodic table, you will realize it is easy to predict many oxidation numbers. Complete the following table using the periodic table in the back of your textbook. Remember, the oxidization number represents the charge that an atom would have if electrons were transferred completely to or from the atom. xidization Numbers for ome Common Ions Ion None -1-2 Ar B Ba Be Br Cs Ca F H I Mg Ne K Kr Rn e r e 1. What about Carbon (C) and ilicon (i)? They are four electrons away in either direction. What bonds do these atoms form? Form covalent bonds by sharing electrons 2. n our table, Argon (Ar), Helium (H) and Krypton (Kr) would be placed in the column None. What common characteristic do these atoms share? Do no react with other atoms to form ions. uter valence is full. Thus, these elements are stable.
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