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Grammar in a Nutshell Present Simple Form Affirmative: V (short infinitive) I speak English. / He speaks English. Negative: Do/Does + not + V (don’t) I don’t speak English. / He doesn’t speak English. Interrogative: Do/Does + S + V Do you speak English? / Does he speak English? Negative-Interrogative: Do/Does + not + S + V Don’t you speak English? / Doesn’t he speak English? Time exressions that are used with present simple: usually, often, always, every day/week/year, in the
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  Grammar in a NutshellPresent Simple FormAffirmative: V (short infinitive)  I speak English. / He speaks English . Negative: Do/Does + not + V (don’t)  I don’t speak English. / He doesn’t speak English . Interrogative: Do/Does + S + V  Do you speak English? / Does he speak English? Negative-Interrogative: Do/Does + not + S + V  Don’t you speak English? / Doesn’t he speak English? Time exressions  that are used with present simple: usually, often, always,every day/week/year, in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night, at theweekend, on Sunday . Se!!ing for the third erson sing !ar: 1.Verbs ending in consonant + y => i + es : to try  he tries but to play  he plays!.Verbs ending in s #$ #% #sh #ch => + #es ending : pass  passes watch  watches bu$$  bu$$es wa%  wa%es &.Verbs '( )( and '( G*' => + #es ending : do  does go  goes #se 1.or repeated actions and daily routines  He drives  to work every morning. !.or general truths. he sun sets  in the west. &.or o,,icial timetables and programmes -,uture eents/ he plane from imisoara arrives  at !. #. 0.or sport commentaries reiews or narrations  Hagi takes  the $all, he shoots  and he scores . .or instructions or directions %ou cut   the sli&es of tomato and you  put   them on the $read. 2.3nstead o, ,uture in subordinate clause o, time and condition.  'any will $e angry if you don’t call   her. 4. 3nstead o, present per,ect with erbs li5e to hear, to know, to forget, towin, to tell  .  I hear she is ill. / hey tell me om is $a&k. Present 6ontinuous FormAffirmative: S + To $e (resent sim!e) + V + ing  I am listening to musi& now . Negative: S + To $e + not + V + ing  I am not listening to musi& now . Interrogative: To $e + S + V + ing  (re you listening to musi& now? Negative-Interrogative: To $e + not + S + V + ing  (ren’t you listening to musi& now? Time exressions  that are used with present continuous: now, at the moment,at present, these days, still, nowadays, today, tonight  . #se 1.or actions which ta5e place at the moment o, spea5ing  I am reading   (tonement at the moment. / )hat are you doing   now? !.or temporary actions or e%ceptions  I am looking   for a *o$ these days. / I usually go to s&hool $y $us $ut today I am going   $y &ar. &. or actions which e%press irritation annoyance and anger -usuallyaccompanied by aderbs such as: always, &onstantly, &ontinually /  He is always picking   on me. / She is always coming   home late. 0.or personal plans that will ta5e place in the near ,uture )hat are you doing   tonight? / +et week we’re leaving   for Spain. .or changing or deeloping situations -usually with erbs such as to get to become/  It is getting   late. / -randma is becoming   older and older. 1  Present Per,ect Simple FormAffirmative: S + %ave / %as + & rd  form of the V  I have written my homework today. Negative: S + %ave / %as + not + & rd  form of the V  I haven’t written my homework today. Interrogative: %ave / %as + S + & rd  form of the V  Have you written your homework today? Negative-Interrogative: %ave/%as + not + S + & rd  form of the V  Haven’t you written your homework yet? Time exressions :  for, sin&e, already, *ust, ever, never, so far, today, thisweek/month/year et&., how long, lately, re&ently #se 1.'o e%press the present result o, a past action  I have seen this movie. -3 5now what it is about/!.7ctions completed in the near past -with aderbs o, time/ om has just left   the room. &. 8ith aderbs o, ,re9uency - ever, never, yet  /  Have you ever been   to ondon? 0. 8ith un,inished periods o, time - today, in the afternoon, this week,this term et&. /  I have met   om this week. . 8ith  for   -a period o, time up to the present/ and since  -the point whenthe actiity starts/  I have known  'ary for ten years. I have been  a tea&her of English sin&e 01 . Present Per,ect 6ontinuous FormAffirmative: S + %ave / %as + $een + V + ing  I have $een learning English for five years. Negative: S + %ave / %as + not + $een + V + ing  He hasn’t $een learning     English for five years. Interrogative: S + %ave / %as + S + $een + V + ing  Have you $een learning English for five years? Negative-Interrogative: S + %ave / %as + not + S + $een + V + ing  Haven’t you $een learning     English for five years? Time exressions :  for, sin&e, how long, lately, re&ently . #se 1.'o e%press an actiity begun in the past and still in progress.  I have been cleaning   my room sin&e yesterday. !.'o e%press an actiity begun in the past which has only ust ,inished.  I am sorry I’m late2  Have you been waiting long? &.'o emphasise duration.  I have been waiting   all morning. 0.7 repeated actiity.  I’  ve been taking   3ren&h lessons this year. .7 recently ,inished actiity.  I’  ve been running  . hat’s why I look like this. !  Past Simple FormAffirmative: for reg !ar ver's  S + V + -ed for irreg !ar ver's  S +  nd  form of the V  I played with the &at yesterday .  I went to s&hool yesterday. Negative: S + did + not + V 3 did not go to school yesterday. Interrogative: did + S + V  Did you go to s&hool yesterday? Negative-Interrogative: did + S + not + V / didn’t + S + V  Did you go to s&hool yesterday? / Didn’t you go to s&hool yesterday? Time exressions:  yesterday, then, when, how long ago4?, last night/week/month/year/'onday et&., three/two/ten et&. days ago, in 0!0 #se :1.or an action which happened at a de,inite time in the past. )e went   to the seaside last (ugust. !.or actions which happened one a,ter the other in the past  descriptions. he lady  paid    the driver, then she  got off   the tai and ran  towards the yellowhouse. &.or past habits or states which are now ,inished.  5uildings were  very different two hundred years ago. 0. 7,ter the erb to wish a,ter as if, as though, if only, would rather - *henthe s 'e,ts are different / it’s 6high7 time    I wish I were  there. He speaks as if he knew  everything. It’s 6high7 time you began  to $e serious a$out this. I would rather you went   there 6$ut I would rather go there7. ;S*) '( < * ;S*) '( < G*' ;S*) '( < 8(;) 1. #SD T.  ? ,or past habits or states that no longer e%ist )e used to  travel a lot when we were younger. 6we don’t anymore7 !. DID N.T #S T.  ? ,or habits that did not e%ist in the past but they doe%ist now  I didn’t use  to like travelling. 6$ut now I do7 &. #SD T. / .#0D ? ,or repeated actions in the past Past 6ontinuous Form Affirmative: S + T. $ in ast sim!e (AS/1) + V + -ing  I was writing a letter at two o’&lo&k  . Negative: S + AS/1 + not + V + -ing  I was not 6wasn’t7 writing a letter at two o’&lo&k. Interrogative: AS/1 + S + V + -ing )as he writing a letter at two o’&lo&k? Negative-Interrogative: AS/1 + not + S + V + -ing /AS/1 + S + not + V + -ing )asn’t he writing a letter at two o’&lo&k? / )eren’t you writing a letter at two o’&lo&k? Time exressions: while, when, as, all morning/evening/day/night, yesterday,two/ three 6et&.7 days/months/years ago #se: 1.or an action which was in progress at a certain time in the past:  (t eight o’&lo&k yesterday they  were having dinner  .!.or reported speech as an e9uialent o, present continuous: 8I am studying in ondon.’   ?  He said he was studying in ondon. &.or a long action -in progress/ interrupted by another short action:  I was taking    a $ath when the phone rang. 0.or two simultaneous actions -being being in progress/: She was talking   on her mo$ile phone while she was driving  ..'o describe the atmosphere or the setting in a story: )hen we met the $irds were singing   , the wind was blowing softly  and the sun was  slowly setting  .2.'o show annoyance or irritation in the past  9aul was always  picking   on me2 4.or ,uture plans<arrangements as seen ,rom the past )e left home at eight, we were meeting   om at nine and we were going   to themovies at nine thirty. &  )e used to / would   have lun&h in the family on Sundays. Past Per,ect Simple FormAffirmative: S + %ad + the & rd  form of the V  I had finished dinner $efore I went out. Negative: S + %ad + not + the & rd  form of the V  I hadn’t finished dinner $efore I went out. Interrogative: %ad + S + the & rd  form of the V  Had you finished dinner $efore you went out? Negative-Interrogative: %ad + not + S + the & rd  form of the V  Hadn’t you    finished dinner $efore you went out? Time exressions : $efore, after, never, already, *ust, for, sin&e, until, when, $ythe time #se 1.'o re,er to an action completed be,ore another action in the past.  5y the time I got to the station the train had already left  . !.or an action which began be,ore another action in the past andcontinued up to that time.  He had lived in this house sin&e he was $orn. &.3n reported speech -as an e9uialent o, Present Per,ect Simple/.  He told us he had visited  ondon. Past Per,ect 6ontinuous FormAffirmative: S + %ad + $een + V + ing  I had been speaking   for : minutes when you &alled. Negative: S + %ad + not + $een + V + ing  I hadn’t been speaking  for : minutes when you &alled. Interrogative: S + %ad + S + $een + V + ing  Had you been speaking   for : minutes when I &alled? Negative-Interrogative: S + %ad + not + S + $een + V + ing  Hadn’t you been speaking   for : minutes when I &alled? Time exressions :  for, sin&e, how long, $efore, until  #se 1.'o describe an action in progress in the past begun and completed be,ore another action in the past.  'ary had been washing   the dishes $efore her other arrived. !.'o re,er to an action in the past begun be,ore the time o, spea5ing inthe past and still going on that time or possibly a,ter   5y that time I had been writing   the novel for a year. 0
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