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History Notes - Class 3.docx

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  Greeks and Romans Western Tradition: - Judeo Christian - Germanic - Greco-Roman    Greeks : - Greeks were Hellens = tribe of Indo-Europeans nomads (migrated to modern Greece + Turkey). - Greece’s  dark ages: from the period we get Iliad and Odyssey, Trojan wars happened during that time. - Greek society develops along coastline => traded by sea => learned to be good sailors - Greeks had obstacles: mountains => Greeks grow up separately in city-states. - Greeks identified themselves coming from a city-state, + knew they were a Hellen. *** Forces that united the Greeks : 1) They understood that they had a common ancestor : they were all Hellens (whether they were Spartan or Athenian). 2) They spoke   different dialects , but could understand one another. 3) Shared literature : copies of Homer ’s  Iliad and Odyssey. 4) Greek religion : same pantheon of gods (Zeus, Athena, Hera…), all the Greek gods were common to the Hellens in all city-states. 5) Olympics  (held every 4 years): physical games + intellectual games (art, drama, poetry, music…). To compete in Olympics, must be Greek = Hellen **Different Kinds Of Governments: - There were as many governments as there were city-states. --->  Athens and Sparta governments :    Sparta : - Type of government: authoritarian and militaristic - Spartans conquered Peloponnesians, Peloponnesians became slaves = Helots to the Spartans (for every 1 Spartan, 20 Hellos). Spartans feared Helots would revolt and overthrow them. => In response to that fear, the Spartans became militaristic. They developed a phenomenal set of Spartan warriors: - At 7, boys sent to military school (learn to handl e weapons, improve endurance…), by age 20 they became a real soldier, at 30 they become citizen of Spartan (can vote), only at 60 they can retire from the army. => In Sparta, citizenship was earned thru military service, it was not granted.        Athens : - Type of government: early form of democracy - Athenians put up law codes for judges, to ensure that people get a fair trial. - Athenians helped out poor people: involved more of the poor in the legislature, get them out of debt… - Finally, Pericles, ruled over 50 years = golden age of Greece. During that era: 1) He passed rules that all citizens can hold public office. 2) People were paid for government service = way of opening up places in government for average people. ** Who was a citizen in Athens ?  - Population in Athens: 300,000 - About 150,000 = foreigners or slaves => ineligible for citizenship - About 100,000 = women => ineligible for citizenship. - About 50,000 = had citizenship (eligible to vote, serve government) => It was a DIRECT democracy = have to be PRESENT to vote (they had big arenas where citizens would gather and vote). - Of the 50,000 that could vote, only 5000-6000 would vote.    Greco-Persian wars : **Event that helped create classical Greece was the Greco-Persian wars. - Herodotus  (wrote about the Persian wars): Persi ans weren’t completely defeated;  there was still a Persian empire. ***  Account of the wars :  PART 1 - Persians were conquering toward the west; the Greeks helped out the Ionians = a Persian enemy. => This upset the Persian king Darius, so he promised to get revenge against  Athens . He sent his fleet to attack Athens (they anchored 26 miles from Athens to Marathon).   But  Athens  beat the Persians at the Battle of Marathon . Darius defeated goes home, but promises to come back next year; but he doesn’t and then he dies. PART 2 - Battle of Thermopylae : Darius’ son Xerxes, makes it back to Greece with half a million soldiers, and attacks by land. The Spartans (to help Athens) stand in the way against the Persians. The Persians kill the Spartans (because of a traitor Spartan), make it to Athens and destroy it. => Xerxes’ biggest regret: that Athens was burned. PART 3 - After Athens loses the army battle, they build a navy. They win the naval Battle of Salamis . Xerxes marches his army back home and this marks the END of the Greco-Persian wars. => Athens, with help from Sparta, defeats Persia and never again did Persia come back to Greece to defeat it.   As the victor, Greece will now flourish: they have a navy + control trade, which brings them great wealth and fame.    Note: Hellenistic = Hellenic = Greek culture, derived from the Hellens. ** Hellenistic culture : - Greek drama : told their history and history of others; purpose was to teach morality. - Greek philosophy : Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Idea behind Greek philosophy: what is right/good + from ethics to politics. - Greek history : Herodotus = father of history (told the Greco-Persian wars). - Greek languages , learning    Macedonia : - Macedonians = culturally + ethnically related to the Greeks (but were not considered fully Greeks by the Greeks). ** King Philip the 2 nd  : - Macedonian king Philip the 2 nd  was a good conqueror. He conquered almost all of Greece except for Sparta. - Philip had a favorite child: Alexander the Great (his mother was not a Macedonian). - When Alexander was 19, Philip the 2 nd  took a new Macedonian wife and had a son with her, which he called his heir. Afterward, Philip was assassinated. => Alexander succeeds to his father because other son was too young. **  Alexander the Great  : - Alexander learned from Aristotle + has a great military mind. His intention was not to just conquer, but to remake the conquered people as Greeks. - Alexander came to throne in 336 BC: he invaded Persia, India, Egypt; he founded Alexandria (named after him), and set up his capitol in Babylon. => He accomplished all his military goals; he gets a fever and dies at 33 years old. However, h e didn’t do as well  at spreading Greek culture (but not a complete failure because he spread Greek learning and culture in southeast Asia). **  After Alexander’s death : - After Alexander’s death,  his empire was divided among generals. The generals formed small dynasties and ruled them. - Ptolemy (one of Alexander’s top 3 generals) ruled Egypt. The Ptolemies w ill continue to rule Egypt until the last pharaoh. Then came the Romans. => Romans will then rule Egypt.   3 Major Periods in Roman History: 1) 1000-500 BC: Roman Origins: the Etruscans and Romans fighting 2) 500-31 BC: Roman Republic 3) 31BC –  476 AD: Roman Empire   1) Roman Origins: Etruscans and Romans : ** Etruscans  (not romans-lost srcins) lived in north of Rome and fought with the Romans. - They spread things that they knew. Romans learned this from them: the arch, sewers, drains (bringing clean water and taking away dirty water), and a military formation called “ Phalanx ” . ** Romans  (=Latins): They will found city of Rome in 753.   2) Roman Republic:  - At first, Rome was a Republic and was conquering/expanding. (After republic, Rome becomes an empire because governed by an emperor: Octavian). - During the Roman Republic, it was a bit like the Greek system: males of certain statuses got to participate in government (you elect people who vote for you). - Overtime, the Roman Republic expanded, and the military generals became very powerful. ** Romans were    successful at conquering  (learned a lot from the Etruscans): 1) As they moved to new areas, they built infrastructures  (roads, bridge, aqueduct  …) to move the military; + they knew how to work in concrete. 2) Their military ability + Phalanx  helped them be successful. 3) Treatment of the conquered people : they offered conquered people a way to join Rome: allowed them to keep their government and religion, as long as they paid taxes and observed roman feast days. - At same time in Rome, the Republi can system wasn’t going so well: inside conflict because of social differences; slave rebellions => restless society. - The Romans felt that even if the Roman Republic was mighty, they (Romans ) didn’t have a strong leader. The strong leaders ready were the military generals in charge of the army. The most famous general was Julius Caesar. ** End of Roman Republic  : - The generals fought amongst themselves to rule Rome. => Julius Caesar finally defeated his rival generals and won full control of Rome ( Rome is not  yet an empire; Julius is a dictator, not an emperor  ). Julius reformed the calendar (365 years and 1 leap year every 4years), he tried to help out poor people, and he expanded the definition of citizenship…     3) Roman Empire:  - March 15, 44 BC: A group of senators stabbed Julius to death because they were afraid he would make himself emperor for life. - After Cesar ’s death, everyone competes for the rule of Rome. In 31 BC, Battle of Actium:  Mark Anthony loses and Octavian is the sole winner, and he is renamed Augustus (most high). He becomes Augustus Cesar, the 1 st   emperor of Rome.   Now we have a roman empire.
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