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IES (by Page)(Elders) Humanism and Early-Renaissance Music - A Study of the Ceremonial Music by Ciconia and Dufay (2009 06 17)

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-“2. Humanism Although one form of humanism or another can be found in different periods of history, the humanism of the Renaissance is considered to be humanism in the strictest sence of the term. “By Renaissance humanism we mean merely the general merely tendency of the age to attach the greatest importance to classical studies, and to consider classical antiquity as the common standard and model by which to guide all cultural actiities.! 2 #$lders, %
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  -“2. Humanism Although one form of humanism or another can be found in different periods of history, the humanism of the Renaissance is considered to be humanism in thestrictest sence of the term. “By Renaissance humanism we mean merely the generalmerely tendency of the age to attach the greatest importance to classical studies,and to consider classical antiquity as the common standard and model by which toguide all cultural actiities.! 2  #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance&usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.! +idsschrift an deereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2 # 113' 45- 6 , 43 7oremost among these actiities was the collecting of manuscripts from earlier times.8etrarch had already written' “9 i libri ci offrono un godimento molto profondo!#boo0s gie us a ery deep pleasure3. :  7our of the finest libraries in present-day ;talytrace their srcin to the 5th century, namely the Biblioteche Laurenziana  in 7lorence, Marciana  in enice, Malatestiana  in Rimini, and the Vaticana  in Rome. < #$lders,%illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usicby )iconia and *ufay.! +idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse&u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2 # 113' 45- 6 , 43 “)lassical humanism was 9 certainly the most characteristic and perasieintellectual current! in 5th-century ;taly. “%ith its merits and with its limitations,humanism peraded more or less all achieements and e=pressions! of that time. 5 #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the)eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.! +idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2 # 113' 45- 6 , 43 7or the humanist, ideal education consists in the studia humanitatis . +his term wasderied from ancient Roman authors such as )icero. “By the first half of the fifteenthcentury, the studia humanitatis  came to stand for a clearly defined cycle of scholarlydisciplines, namely grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy.! 4  +hesignificance of this educational idea lies, howeer, not so much in the generaldeelopment and unfolding of the abilities of indiidual men, as in the perfection,dignity and enhancement of being man, based upon a harmonious equilibrium. 1 ;n ageneral sense, the humanist ideal is to educate men with “una morale del ierearmonioso, una morale di modera/ione e di temperan/a.! >  +owards the end of the 5th century, this ideal found its perfect formulation in )astiglione?s ; l cortegiano  #+he)ourtier3. #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the  )eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.! +idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2 # 113' 45- 6 , 437rom 8etrarch to )astiglione, practically all ;talian humanists confirm that the basicconcept of humanitas  is the equialent of virtus .   +hey regarded classical Roman virtus  as a national heritage. ;n 5th-century humanistic literature, the term virtus  is,howeer, a complicated one. +o illustrate this, ; shall refer to four humanistic authors.#$lders, %illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the)eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.! +idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2 # 113' 45- 6 , 43 )oluccio (alutati, who was chancellor of the Signoria  in 7lorence in the last quarter of the <th century, and who had a great influence through his @atin letters, describes humanitas  in a letter to )arlo &alatesta 26  as a synthesis of virtus   benignitatis ,  peritia ,and doctrina ' “am non solum illa irtus, que etiam benignitas dici solet, hoc nominesignificatur, sed etiam peritia et doctrina.! 2 #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.!+idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2# 113' 45- 6 , 4-163 7rom a letter of @eonardo Bruni, the leader of the 7lorentine humanists at thebeginning of the 5th century, we can gather that the new ideal of the education of man leads to moderateness and resere' “&orales irtutes mediocritates quaedamsunt inter e=cessum et defectum.! 22  %e find the same coniction also in 8oggio the7lorentine. +he latter urges the aboe-mentioned rules of conduct upon someonewho is called to a new dignity, “ut gaudeant hominess et plurimum humanitatiadditum propter hanc dignitatem.! 2:  $en 8oggio?s boo0 Facetiae  shows the e=tent towhich intellectual life was permeated by the moral obligation of irtuous conduct.Here is one of his anecdotes on  virtus and  doctrina ' ;n the Roman )uria @ady 7ortune rules and apportions' there is scarcely eer room for abilities# ingenio 3 or irtue # virtuti  3 all positions are obtained through intrigue and chance, not to spea0 of &oney, which seems to be lord and master throughout the world. A certain friend, who only withdifficulty could stomach the fact that preference was gien to many whose erudition and uprightnesswas considerably less than his own, complained to Angelotto, )ardinal of (t. &ar0?s, that no accountwhateer was ta0en of his irtue and that he was passed oer in faour of people who could not equalhim in any respect. He mentioned his education from start to finish, and the efforts which he hade=pended on scholarship. +he cardinal, always ready to ridicule the ices of the )uria, said on hearing  this' “Here one can gain nothing by learning # scientia 3 and erudition # doctrina 3. But persist and, if youreally wish the 8ope to accept you, try to unlearn what you hae already learned as quic0ly aspossible, and   to acquire the ices which you do not possess.! 2<   #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and$arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.!+idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2# 113' 45- 6 , 163 @eon Battista Alberti, author and architect, in his writings in ;talian repeatedly treats indetail the terms umanità and virtù ' “delle irt quail noi molto rendono amate,troerete, fiqliuole mie dolcissime, niuna tanto alere a beneolen/ia, quanto la 9umanitC, 9 modestia, 9 e cortesia.! 25  #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.!+idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2# 113' 45- 6 , 163 (ummari/ing we can say that in humanistic literature, virtus  stands for irtue,correctness, honesty, boldness, and modesty. 24  ;n the maority of humanistic writings,there is a strong morali/ing tendency. 21   #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.!+idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2# 113' 45- 6 , 163 7ollowing this e=planation of the general meaning of the terms humanitas  and virtus ,it will be appropriate to ma0e some obserations on the practical aspects of the studyof the “humanities!. &ost of the early humanists were actie as teachers of thehumanities in secondary schools or uniersities, and “practically eery scholar receied a humanistic training in secondary school before he acquired a professionaltraining in any of the other disciplines at the uniersity.! 2>  #$lders, %illem. “Humanismand $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and*ufay.! +idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2# 113' 45- 6 , 163 ;mplied in, and connected with the program of the  studia humanitatis  was the idea of an emphasis on man, on his dignity and his priileged place in the unierse, 2  +hebiblical dictum “man is a unique creature because Dod created him in His ownimage!, was in the 5th century connected with 8lato?s statement that man shouldbecome similar to god. ;n a sense the humanists felt that “if man is a deity, he is anearthbound mortal god.! :6   #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance  &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.! +idsschrift an deereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2 # 113' 45- 6 , 16-1 3 “Another characteristic feature Eof humanismF is the tendency to e=press 9 theconcrete uniqueness of one?s feelings, opinions, e=periences, and surroundings!, : the feeling of being an “indiidual!. :2  +his tendency “appears in the biographical 9literature of the time as well as in portrait painting.! ::   #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and$arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.!+idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2# 113' 45- 6 , 1 3 ;nfluenced by )icero, @eonardo Bruni ma0es it man?s duty to be first of all a citi/en of the city or state. Human glory lies in particular in the wor0 a man does for the state towhich he belongs. 8ride in the wealth and beauty of one?s own city #nationalism3 heregoes together with humanistic ethics. :<   #$lders, %illem. “Humanism and $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and *ufay.!+idsschrift an de ereniging oor ederlandse &u/ie0geschiedenis 21, no.2# 113' 45- 6 , 1 3 Gne can say that the criteria of rhetoric hold for the composition and performance of music in general. “@i0e the grammatical structure of language, a composition haspunctuations, syntactical terms, sentences, periods, which hae to be “pronounced!with prosodical accuracy and clearness of declamation. +hey hae to be e=ecuted?with improised ornaments, oratorical urgency and dynamics. @i0e the creation of aspeech, composition consists of the inention # inventio 3, disposition # dispositio 3,elaboration and decoration # elaboratio , decoratio 3 of musical moement. @i0e an oratio , a composition must, in arrangement and style, ta0e account not only of itssubect, but also of the actual circumstances of the audience, the place and the time.@i0e a speech, it has a beginning, a middle and an end # exordium , medium  and finis ,or more detailed perhaps' exordium , narration ,  propositio , confirmatio , confutatio ,  perotatio 3. @i0e a wor0 of eloquentia , it must hae elegantia , exornatio , decorum . @i0ean ingenious oration, it will be ornamented by figurations which, at the same time,increase the e=pression for e=ample, repetitions can hae an emphatic effect,antitheses a contrasting, and pauses a surprising one, ust as in a speech. And li0ean orator, the composer can ary his thoughts and can reflect upon means to gieariety and diersification # varietas 3 to his composition. #$lders, %illem. “Humanismand $arly-Renaissance &usic' A (tudy of the )eremonial &usic by )iconia and

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