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Exploration of the Mars is the preferential topic by space community. Especially NASA is willing to accomplish both robotic and manned Mars missions within 2020s. Before the human spaceflight, the demonstration of a practicable knowledge management
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   66 th  International Astronautical Congress, Jerusalem, Israel . Copyright ©201 5 by Ozan Kara. All rights reserved. IAC-15- D5.2.4 Page 1 of 10 IAC-15-D5.2.4 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE: NASA'S MARS MISSION WITH GAMIFICATION TECHNIQUE & SELF-KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INTANGIBLE OUTCOMES FOR YOUNG PROFESSIONALS Ozan Kara KOC University, Turkey, Exploration of the Mars is the preferential   topic by space community. Especially NASA is willing to accomplish both robotic and manned Mars missions within 2020s. Before the human spacefligh t, the demonstration   of a practicable knowledge managemen t infrastructure prevents possible mission failures. In conjunction with the incremental responsibilities, the private sector requires well qualified young people to collaborate and support agencies and governments for future Mars missions. Therefore, the pa- per objectives to create a knowledge managemen t (KM) approach by analysing (1) collaboration among universities, agencies and private sector and (2) young professional workforce developmen t to supp ort requirements of future Mars missions. In the meantime, the knowledge managemen t approach and young professional developmen t particularly focuses on the self-knowledge management. The self-knowledge managemen t  associates issues in the social and personality psychologies such as unconscious, in trosp ec tion, accuracy, bias, experimental methods. The following objective of the paper is the integration of intangible outcomes of the self-knowledge managemen t into the applicable knowledge managemen t ap proach for  NASA’s  Mars Mission. The KM approach is constituted by following resources; (1) IPMC Young Professional Workshops, (2)  NASA’s   APPEL documents and Masters with Masters Programs (3) literature review about training and education and (4) Self-knowledge managemen t  studies. Results of the self-knowledge managemen t are related outcomes such as motives and biases, decision making, un- conscious though and relationship outcomes. The literature review denotes challenges of curren t   trends in training and developmen t  such as mobile learning, social learning and leadership development. IPMC YP workshops show practical applications of project managemen t and system engineering from various organizations. Due to the recent   studies of NASA, the potential   KM approach   involves gamification   techniques and constructive scenarios for the Mars missions including technical and organ iza t ional issues. Gamification technique uses simulations to train young professionals by using previous mission failures. In addition, simulations allow hands-on experience for scientists and engineers visualize Mars within p oss i ble defailments.   ACRONYMS APPEL = Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership CKO = Chief Knowledge Officer DLR = Deutsches Zentrum für Luft - und Raumfahrt, The German Aerospace Center DSCOVR = Deep Space Climate Observatory ESA = European Space Agency JAXA = Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency KM = Knowledge Management MAV = Micro Air Vehicle MAVEN = Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission NASA = National Aeronautics and Space Administration NOAA = National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration OCE = Office of Chief Engineer OECD = the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development PMO = Project Management Office UV = Ultraviolet VEGGIE = the Vegetable Production System YP = Young Professional   66 th  International Astronautical Congress, Jerusalem, Israel . Copyright ©201 5 by Ozan Kara. All rights reserved. IAC-15- D5.2.4 Page 2 of 10 I.   INTRODUCTION The engrossing breakthroughs in space exploration has been enhanced the desire of human spaceflight beyond the Moon. The progressive accomplishments within the last a couple of years are significant indicators of the inception of the “New Space” era. In 2014, the white house proposed extending the International Space Station’s missions to 2024 which is four years beyond U.S. had committed to at the time. Following the third quarter of the year, NASA awarded contracts for seven instruments aboard the Mars 2020 rover which valued $130M 1 . The year 2014 ended up with the achievements of MAVEN, Rosetta mission and Orion test flight. In addition, more other nations such as Japan, India, Russia, China, Middle East and Europe had been performed new developments in fields of rocket propulsion, asteroid mission and satellite systems. The year 2015 has been started especially with the deep space exploration breakthroughs. The DSCOVR were launched which has 10 year mission life with the partnership of NOAA, NASA and the U.S. Air Force. The scientists had been found a way to keep  NASA’s MESSENGER probe in orbit longer. One of the most significant progress was the attainment to the Ceres by NASA’s Dawn spacecraft on March 6. Close -up images provide scientist to understand better about dwarf planets. In March 27, NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko were prepared for one-year stay aboard the ISS is the first-ever mission. The scientist will acquire new data for the future, long term human spaceflights. The Hubble Space Telescope turned 25 years old which images from the Hubble will support the James Webb Space Telescope scheduled to be launched in 2018. Herewith the New Horizons flyby to Pluto, the US became the first nation which reached the all planets in the solar system. In addition people followed the fly by with NASAEYE software together with NASA engineers which was the inspiring outcome in perspective of social impact. The final quarter of the 2015 will witness the Japanese Akatsuki spacecraft enters the Venus orbit and also the launch of the ESA’s LISA Pathfinder mission 2 . 2014 and 2015 reflect the contributions of agencies and governments. The incremental responsibilities of the private space sector exhibits remarkable efforts. Although the Virgin Galactic and Orbital Sciences had been faced two afflictive accidents, the space sector has learned to be more attentive. Within the 2015, SpaceX tried to land on ocean platform with their reusable rocket. This attempt will improve autonomous rocket control to a specific target. XCOR Aerospace built the Lynx space plane desires to start suborbital space flight with passengers. All these breakthrough within the last 2 years are indicators of the one significant point. That is the  beginning of the “New Space” era accompanied with human Mars Mission. Exploring Mars with its moons accepted as the next vital objective for the space society. The primary projection of next generation Mars mission was performed by NASA Mars Exploration Program in 2012 proposed a collaboration with ESA’s ExoMars program. The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) presented concepts for robotic and human Mars missions which influe nced the NASA’s FY2014 budget. Main concepts included a sample-return mission in the late 2020s, in-situ soil analysis, telecom orbiter and innovative lander with mini rovers 3 . Current initiatives on Mars can be shown from Mars One project estimated landing astronauts in 2030 the cost of $6B and Elon Musk’s Mars colony envision launching colonists to the Mars with a huge reusable rocket for $500,000 per seat 4 . The common challenges of human Mars mission are human health risks, propulsion needs, life support systems, lander design and especially the huge budget constraints. NASA’s budget was the 4 -4.5% of the total federal budget during the Apollo missions 5 . The cost of Apollo program corresponds $156B in 2015 dollars 5 . In 2012 NASA had almost 0.7% of the federal budget that indicates we probably won’t face any other “Kennedy Impact”  5 . When we look into detail of new knowledge management approaches are needed to fulfill future Mars mission objectives. Therefore, this paper come up with a prospective human Mars mission path considering young professional workforce development, education, training and knowledge management strategies. In addition, sociological and socioeconomic conditions of countries are discussed for the global collaboration. Current trends in training and education covers “quick” learning tools such as e -learning approach, mobility, social media comparing with “pondering” library education for pre -university students. The most popular method which is “gamification” is discussed in private. Gam ification is the current learning tool for business and education that is needed to be defined for the (aero) space sector. Briefly, 3D printing of planets, failure analysis with simulations, real Mars surface animation and learning are various approaches by this paper. For the knowledge management approaches NASA APPE L and NASA’s knowledge management map are inspected. Furthermore, the intangible outcomes of newly emerging topic self-knowledge management for education and young professional development is elaborated by the paper as a starting point. I presented the outline of the paper with five key drivers theoretical, practical, theme, supportive actors and outcome in the Fig 1.   66 th  International Astronautical Congress, Jerusalem, Israel . Copyright ©201 5 by Ozan Kara. All rights reserved. IAC-15- D5.2.4 Page 3 of 10 Fig 1: The Paper Approach II.   BACKGROUND Self- Knowledge Management Self-knowledge management is a newly-emerging area unites branches in the social and personality psychologies such as unconscious, introspection, accuracy, bias, experimental methods. Self-knowledge provide communication among these subfields and reveal personal mistakes from everyday life experiments. According to the Ref. 6, the self-knowledge has one special feature sets it apart from another “self” related topics such as self  -esteem, self-concepts, self-regulations and self-views, is “examination of the accur  acy of the self- views” 6 . Self-knowledge in everyday life covers cognition of motives, behaviors, attitudes, emotions, relationships and empathy which helps to have better self-control, decision making and responsibilities. Under the cognitive psychology, the self-knowledge during the everyday life be shaped from personal memories. Assessment of false and correct decision is a driver of our current knowledge. This is one of the key factors in which a young professionals test for their early-career studies unintentionally. The second fundamental domain of self-knowledge is the “awareness of blind spots”. In practice, if you are be aware of your skills, you would plan the next learning phases with rapid increase. In the meantime, being aware of predispositions direct learning phases. Along with self-enhancement factors such as personal memories, awareness and predispositions, internal and external motivation has significant role for mental states. The greater performance comes with satisfactory job environment, self-esteem and self-motivation. The Ref. 6 states that other people can be a sourse of self-knowledge. The self-concept develops in younger age with social influences. Younger ages are more open to social interaction and learn from others. Receiving social feedback from experiences of other people are another factor 6 . The Ref. 6 illustrates college students accept more likely feedbacks from undergraduates rather than PhD students. NASA APPEL & CKO One of the most significant program to unite projects and people the Program & Project Management Initiative (PPMI) was established in the beginning of 90s by NASA. After the space shuttle challenger disaster NASA organized training courses by focusing on project management (PM). The main objective is to prevent future failures, educate young employees and connects large scale systems/projects and people. PPMI was changed to the Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership (APPEL) after 1993. The APPEL brought more dynamic structure within the PM curriculum. In addition, expanded PM needs had been occurred after 2000s. These needs included systems engineering education, increased responsibility of team work and knowledge sharing activities. Therefore the APPEL is formed more cost considered, sustainable and innovative program. The APPEL also focuses on hands-on experiences and strategic communication 7 . Fig 2: NASA APPEL Evolution The KM community by APPEL curriculum undertake responsibility of improving systems engineering, project management, earned value management, project planning and control and software engineering 7 . In addition, CKO within the OCE in NASA finds required knowledge, distributes knowledge among practitioners, and connects individuals, teams, programs and centers each other. The Ref. 8 presents the critical knowledge gateway compendium of NASA. Due to this study OCE, CKO and PMO are responsible for implementing the organization strategies, technical   66 th  International Astronautical Congress, Jerusalem, Israel . Copyright ©201 5 by Ozan Kara. All rights reserved. IAC-15- D5.2.4 Page 4 of 10 standards, emerging concepts, mission designs from both successful missions and failures. Understanding the lessons learned from failures and sharing the correct applications to workforce is one of the significant methods by the NASA KM team. The NASA KM group collaborate various organization to be effective on the field these are Federal Knowledge Management Community (FKMC), American Productivity and Quality Center (APQC), the Project Management Institute (PMI), International Astronautical Federation International Project/Program Management Committee (IPMC) and Knowledge Management Technical Committee (KMTC) and project managers from ESA, JAXA and DLR 7,8  Gamification Definition for the Space Sector During the 17 th  meeting of FKMC, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) CKO Dr. Michael Bell presented “gamification” as a possible KM tool i ncluding motivational factors by employees such as autonomous studies, making progress, improvements, making difference and social interaction 10 . The gamification refers to a process of making systems and services more enjoyable and motivating. The gamification is applied by non-game users increase engagement, organizational productivity, business plans, learning, employee evaluation and knowledge transfer. The concepts of gamification has been defined many researchers in different ways. In my perspective the fundamental concept of gamification should include defined goals, user indicators, and identified risks. The controller (coach) need to measure scores, decision making experience, actions of the user. Gamification scenario needs a motivation and clear objectives for users. Within motivation, team working, various decision paths, mission risks and difficulty levels are formed the gamification design. The key elements are feedback and scorekeeping. Scorekeeping is the instantaneous records of users such as decision accuracy and the response time. Scorekeeping is performed by the coach. Feedback is the result of objective. After the user finish the scenario, a set of feedback is transferred to the coach. The most important element of the gamification structure is criterions or measures. Criterions include creativity, skills, decision type, response time, self-determination and team work of users. According to measures possible mission failures, user development and mission requirements can be analysed and improved. The framework of the gamification can be seen from the Fig. 3. Fig 3: Gamification Structure III.   GLOBAL SPACE ECONOMY AND REFLECTIONS The country based assessment of the space sector is helpful for forming future global collaborations. Understanding global value chains, R&D budgets, human capital, spin-offs and outputs in the economy are directly data for future workforce. The global space sector employed more than 900,000 persons around the world in 2013, including space agencies, defense-related organizations, the space manufacturing industry and commercial telecommunication companies, excluding universities and research institutions 11 . The strategic objective of space industry is to increase investments and business in global scale. Fig. 4: Figure 6. Main Drivers of the Space Economy 11     66 th  International Astronautical Congress, Jerusalem, Israel . Copyright ©201 5 by Ozan Kara. All rights reserved. IAC-15- D5.2.4 Page 5 of 10 For instance, space economy of the United States, covers 0.3% of GDP and this value is less than 0.1% in France 11 . Total space economy had around $256.3B US dollars revenues in 2013. The Fig. 6 illustrates this revenue is distributed as 33% space manufacturing organizations, 8.4% satellite operators and 58% consumer services 11 . Forecasting the future space economy accompanied with next generation workforce and human spaceflight it’s better to list the foll owing three data of OECD; (i) the next generation of scientist at age 15, (ii) space exploration and (iii) human spaceflight activities. The dream about human mars mission might be realize in 2030s which 15 years old students will be 30 years old young professionals and one of them might be the first humankind who step on Mars. The Fig. 5 presents the next generation of scientist in science, reading and mathematics proficiency at age 15 due to the PISA 2012 report 12 . Fig. 5: The next generation of scientists: science, reading and mathematics proficiency at age 15 12  The Fig. 6 taken from the Ref. 17 shows the conducted missions to asteroids, Venus, Mars and the Moon between 1958 and 2013. In this table we need to add data of 2015 missions. As we can see from the Fig. 6, the overall success of Moon and Mars missions are 50%. The missions accomplished have faced 50% failure. The main goal for subsequent missions is to establish concrete knowledge management path educating young people and considering the budget constraints. Therefore OECD data help us to see the bigger framework. Fig. 6: Performed Planetart Missions between 1958 and 2013 11  The Fig. 7 presents the statistics about human spaceflights for as of May 2014. Data includes performed orbital missions, ISS missions, suborbital flights and space tourism flights. Similar to the 50% failure data in Fig 6, this data shows that we have not performed a manned mission since 1972. In addition only 12 astronauts walked on the different planet. This is the biggest indicator that we gamification trainings might help to overcome this challenge. Fig. 7: Performed Human Spaceflight Characteristics 11  Investments on human spaceflight programs are increasing by many countries. The international collaboration for the ISS and cargo capsules are also increasing after space shuttle missions ends in 2011. The space sector uses Russians Soyuz rockets, Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle and European Automated Transfer Vehicle to deliver cargo or the crew transfer. In addition SpaceX Dragon capsule and Orbital Science Cygnus rockets are examples for cargo and crew support to the ISS from the private industry. Due to the OECD report SpaceX and Orbital Sciences awarded resupply contracts $1.6B and $1.9B until 2015 11 . By the
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