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  Production (Main stages)   Pre-Production: Planning, scripting & storyboarding, etc     Production:   The actual shooting/recording.     Post-Production: Includes everything between production and creating the final master copy. PRE-PRODUCTION    It is the stage in which all the planning for the project takes place. During this stage, the production is broken down into individual scenes and all the places, props, cast members, costumes, special effects and  visual effects are identified. The script is also written at this stage, if it has not already been completed. A well detailed schedule is produced and arrangements are made for the necessary elements or people to be available to the film-makers at the appropriate times .   PRODUCTION    This is the stage at which all the filming is carried out. All scenes planned out in pre-production are filmed at the relevant locations. Each scene is filmed as many times as the director deems fit, to ensure the best quality scenes will be used to construct the film. This is where the strength of the pre-production work is tested. Great precautions and care must be taken to make sure that all the filming is done correctly and all necessary shots are taken, as it is sometimes difficult or impossible to go back and repeat certain events if the filming is incomplete when it comes to the post-production stage. POST-PRODUCTION In this stage the film is assembled by the editor. The first job of the film editor is to build a rough cut taken from or scenes based on individual shots. The purpose of building a rough cut is to select and order the best shots. The next step is to create a fine cut. This is getting all the shots to flow smoothly in a seamless story. Trimming- which is the process of shortening scenes by a few minutes, seconds, or even frames- is done during this phase. Editing of footage, all music, graphics, menus etc are also added in this stage. After the fine cut has been screened and approved by the director and producer, the picture is locked, this means no further changes are made. America’s Main producers   DreamWorks   Steven Spielberg, Jeffrey Katzenburg and David Geffen established Dreamworks in 1994. Though not a full-service studio, Dreamworks arranges for the production  and financing of movies. It then ties up with one of the majors for help in the distribution. It actually had a brief stint as part of the Viacom group, but it became independent again after over two years. The Reliance ADA Group of India currently backs the company. Katzenburg has since completely divested from the company and now runs a separate studio called Dreamworks Animation.   Viacom  Viacom(established January 3, 2006) by Tom Freston and Sumner Redstone, is the conglomerate behind the Paramount Motion Pictures Group. Its major studio subsidiary is Paramount Pictures, while arthouse movies are released under the name of Paramount  Vantage. It also has a company dedicated for B movies called Insurge Pictures. It has an 8.5 percent share of the entire North American Market. It also owns MTV Films and Nickelodeon Movies.   Philippe P. Dauman (president and CEO) LionsGate Entertainment Lions Gate Entertainment is the most successful studio not based in Los Angeles. Established in 1997 by Frank Giustra, the company is also the owner of Artisan Entertainment. It has recently been renamed as Lionsgate and the studio is now also the owner of Summit Entertainment, the highest earning mini major studio from 2009 to 2012. Lionsgate also has a share in Roadside Attractions. 20 th  Century Fox   News Corporation was the outfit behind the Fox Entertainment Group. The major studio subsidiary is 20thCentury Fox, while independent movies are distributed through its Fox Searchlight Pictures. Other companies under News Corporation include Fox Faith, 20th Century Fox Animation, Blue Sky Studios and Fox Animation studios also has a minority stake in New Regency Productions. The company owns a 10.6 percent share of the US and Canadian markets.    Jim Gianopulos (Chairman and CEO)  Comcast/General Electric Comcast/General Electric owns NBC Universal and is the company behind Universal Pictures. It also owns Focus Features that it uses for art house and independent movies. It has a 13.6 percent share of the US and Canadian markets. Other companies under it are Illumination Entertainment,  Working Title Films and Universal Animation Studios.   Brian L. Roberts (Chairman, President, and CEO)   The Walt Disney Company   The Walt Disney Company controls about 14.3 percent of the entire North American market. Its parent division is called The Walt Disney Studios. Movie productions are done under its major studio subsidiary called Walt Disney Pictures. The Walt Disney Company also owns other important film brands and divisions, among them being Lucasfilm, Marvel Studios, Pixar, Touchstone Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios and Disney nature.   Robert A. Iger is Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of The Walt Disney Company. Time   Warner    Time Warner is a conglomerate that owns the second biggest share of the combined markets of the US and Canada at 15.4 percent. Its parent division is called Warner Bros. Entertainment,  while its major studio subsidiary is named Warner Bros. Pictures. It is also the owner of other brands and divisions. Among them are New Line Cinema, Castle Rock Entertainment, Turner Entertainment Co., Warner Bros. Animation and DC Entertainment.    SONY    SONY is the conglomerate behind Sony Pictures Entertainment. Its major studio subsidiary is Columbia Pictures. The company is also friendly to independent producers with its own art house division that is called  Sony Pictures Classics. The company, through its distribution subsidiary called Screen Gems, also backs genre and B movie producers. With a 17 percent share of the entire US and a Canadian market, Sony is considered as the biggest studio these days. It also owns companies and prominent film brands like Tri Star Pictures, Sony Pictures Animation, Destination Films, Triumph Films, Stage 6 Films and Affirm Films. The ownership of a studio can have a great impact on the films the studio makes, this is because for the owners or the studios may have a liken for comedy genre films than others, hence the studios will be made to gear their films to more comedy based than others. There are two types of ownership: Conglomerate and Independent. If as studio is owned by a conglomerate they will tend to make more big  budget movies and better standard movies as the conglomerate has more funding than an independent producer. Conglomerates have more funding as a result of the income they make from previous blockbuster movies hence they able to help other smaller studios they own make better quality movies. If a studio is independent or is not under a conglomerate they will have less funding to invest in their films to make it a high budget or good quality. Independent Production: This is production normally done outside bigger production   company/Conglomerate . Distribution This is the act of sending copies of produced films (physical, digital etc.) to exhibition places (cinemas, art houses, cable etc.) The people who distribute films are known as distributors. It is not always the same people that produce a film; this is because anybody can produce/make a film. Although now there are newer and more modern ways of distributing films, people generally still use the traditional means of distributing films. The traditional way:    A film is made/produced.    The producers find a distributor(if the producers are independent)

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