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MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF CYPSELAE OF THREE SPECIES OF THE FAMILY COMPOSITAE

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MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF CYPSELAE OF THREE SPECIES OF THE FAMILY COMPOSITAE
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  Bidyut Kumar Janaet al.,IJSID , 2012,2(3),386-393 International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries,Volume 2, Issue3,May-June2012 386 MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF CYPSELAE OF 3 SPECIES OF THE FAMILY COMPOSITAEBidyut Kumar Jana * andSobhan Kumar Mukherjee Taxonomy and Bio-systematicsLaboratory, Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani,West Bengal,India INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION ISSN:2249-5347 IJSID International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries  An International peer Review Journal for Science Research Article Available onlinethrough www.ijsidonline.info   Received:11.04.2012 Accepted:25.06.2012 *Corresponding Author   Address:Name: Bidyut Kumar Jana Place: University of Kalyani,West Bengal, India E-mail:  janabidyutkumar@yahoo.com  ABSTRACT The detailed morphological and anatomical features of mature cypselae in 3species of Compositae (Sonchus oleraceous, Sonchus wightianus, Bidensfrondosa) belonging to the tribe Lactuceae and Coreopsideae have been studied. Morphologicalfeatures of the apical part, surface hairs, location of vascular trace, structure of carpopodium and pappus bristles of cypselas are taxonomically significant. Anatomicallypresence of phytomelanin layer in Bidensfrondosa has an important taxonomicparameter. In all the studied species mesocarpic region exhibits cellular variations.Presence of vellicular cavity is important .This character is absent in case of the genus Sonchus. Presence of pitted parenchyma in the mesocarpic region of  Sonchuswightianus , Sonchus oleraceous has some taxonomic value. An artificial key is provided on morpho-anatomical features of cypselas for the identification of species. Key words: Sonchus , Bidens ,Cypselar morpho-anatomy  Bidyut Kumar Janaet al.,IJSID , 2012,2(3),386-393 International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries,Volume 2, Issue3,May-June2012 387 INTRODUCTION The studiedspecies ( Bidens frondosa , Sonchus oleraceous , Sonchus wightianus ) belonging to thetribe Coreopsideaeand Lactuceae respectively. Sonchus L. belongs to tribe Lactuceae, perennial to annual herbs with leaves inrosettes at apex of stem, capitula with many flowers, variously arranged,involucral bracts without translucent margins,receptacle naked,floretsyellow, at least marginal achenes wrinkled,pappus of setaceous. Bidens L.belongs to the tribe Coreopsideae.Annual orperennial herbs, vines or shrubs,sometimeaquatic, leaves opposite ,sometimesalternatetowardsinflorescence,rarelywhorled, simple to pinnately compound, blades deltate to ovate in outline. Cypselauncompressed, triquetrous, quadrate,obovoid-oblong,linear to fusiform in outline, black to reddish brown , glabrous to densely pubescent,sometimetuberculation,rarely winged.A carefulsurvey showsthat theworks on structure of cypsela ofCoreopsideae andLactuceae 1-3 areratherlimited.AccordingtoRoth 4 ‘’Not only is the external morphology ofathenaeumvery characteristic, but also its inner structureshows certain qualities, which can be usedtaxonomically’’. The present study is aimed to supplement the previous works. MATERIALS AND METHODS Mature cypselae of 3 species were procured from two herbaria of the world and one by first author from Kalyani Township.MaterialsSource1 . Sonchus oleraceous L.Botanischer Garten der Universitat Wien Rennweg 14, A-1030 Wien (Austria), LowerAustria, Thermenlinie, wineyards east of the Heberlberg 2 km southwest of Gumpoldskirchen, 275 m s.m. 48 0 02 ’ N, 16 0 16 ’ E, 23 September 2001, Leg. W. Till s/n, Oncultivated ground.2. Sonchus wightianus L.Kalyani Township. B.J-2013. Bidens frondosa L.Humboldt-UniversidadZu Berlin, Institut fur Biologie, Spezielle Botanik u. Arboretum, D–12437 Berlin, Germany.A few randomly selected dry cypselas from the procured mass were immersed in 5% NaOH solution for 2-3 days.After that, the cypselas were softened. The softened cypselas were stained in aqueous safranin solution(1%) and dissected thedifferent parts of cypselas with the help of 2 sharp needles under dissecting microscope and stereo dissectingbinocularmicroscope. Different parts of cypselas such as structure of epicarpic cells in cypselar surface, distribution of vascular tracethrough theribs, relativethickness of ribs and furrows, structure of pappus bristle and scales were observed and were drawnin bothcompound researchmicroscope as well as stereo dissecting binocular microscope. For anatomical study, free handcross sections were done preferably from the middle part of cypselas with the aid of sharp razor blade. Selected sections werestained in safranin-light greencombination following standard method of staining. Properly stained good sections wereobserved under compoundresearch microscope. RESULTS Bidens frondosa MORPHOLOGY( Fig . 1 A-F) Cypsela homomorphic, 6 mm x 1.5 mm with pappus, 5 mmx 1.5 mm without pappus, light brown, spotted, narrowlyoblong, straight, upper portion truncate, whereas basal portiontapered, without beaked, margin entire. Ellipsoidal in crosssectional configuration. Surface glabrous; containing 3 ribs; inconspicuousor weekly arranged, alternating with furrow,furrows wider than ribs. Thedistancebetween 2 ribs near about 0.08 mm. Phytomelanindeposition observedin the cypselarwall layer. At the upper portion of cypsela, stylopodium present; enlarged, partially immersed in the nectary, cylindric. Coronaabsent. At the basal region of cypsela; carpopodium present, symmetric, diameter same as the base of cypsela, 4 lobbed ring  Bidyut Kumar Janaet al.,IJSID , 2012,2(3),386-393 International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries,Volume 2, Issue3,May-June2012 388 like. Carpopodial cells are thick-walled, made up of radially elongated cells, notpitted,and uniseriatelyarranged. At the upperportion of cypsela; pappus present, homomorphic, represented by 2 equally arranged, extrorselybarbed awns, brown incolour, persistent.  ANATOMY  ( Fig. 2 A-B) Cypselas narrowelliptic in cross section. Ribs present, 3 in number, inconspicuous. Cypselar wall 0.2 mm and 0.16mm wide at ribs and furrow region respectively. Pericarp thick, on an average 0.18 mm wide, differentiated in to two zones-epicarp and mesocarp. EPICARP- Uni-seriate, madeup of thin-walled, rectangular, compactlyarranged,parenchymatous cells, provided withcuticle. MESOCARP -Consist of both pitted palisade parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells.Parenchyma cells-Radially oriented, thick-walled,pitted, compactlyarranged. Sclerenchymacells-Thick-walled, irregular in shape. Phytomelanin layers present in betweenparenchyma and sclerenchyma cells within the mesocarpic region. TESTA/ SEED COAT Attached with the pericarp, approximately 0.07 mm thick, made up ofrectangulararranged parenchyma cells. ENDOSPERM Persist in mature cypsela, biseriate. Outer wall made up of thin-walled, parenchyma cells, whereas inner wall made upof thick-walled,rectangulararranged parenchyma cells. EMBRYO Mature embryo occupies a major part of cypsela; cotyledons 2 in number, arranged at right angle to the axis of cypsela,containing 12resinducts (6ducts in each cotyledon).  Sonchus oleraceous MORPHOLOGY (Fig. 1 G-L) Cypsela homomorphic, 8 mm x 1 mm with pappus, 5 mm x 1 mmwithoutpappus, bright brown, banded, straight indirection, upper part truncate, whereas basal region slightly tapered, oblanceolate, ellipsoidal in cross sectional configuration.Surface glabrous, crenulate, containing 12 ribs; alternating with furrow, furrows wider than ribs.The distance between tworibs 0.3mm. Surface hair absent. On the surface, phytomelanin layer not found. At the upper portion of cypsela stylopodiumpresent; inconspicuously arranged,fully immersed in the nectar. At the basal region of cypsela, carpopodium present,diameter of it same as the base of the cypsela, asymmetric, complete ringlike. Carpopodial cells are elongated, pitted, thin-walled, arranged in 2-3 rows. At the upper portion ofcypsela;pappus present, homomorphic,whitish, unequal, plumose type,freeat the base, 8-11 in number, persistent, arranged in single row. Beak absent.  ANATOMY (Fig . 2D) Cypselas narrowelliptic in cross section. Ribs present; 12 innumbers,conspicuous. Cypselar wall 0.07 mm and 0.04mm wide at rib andfurrow region respectively. Pericarp thick, on an average 0.05 mm wide, differentiated into two zones-epicarp and mesocarp. EPICARP- Uni-seriate, made up of thin-walled, rectangular, compactly arranged, parenchyma cells provided with cuticle.  Bidyut Kumar Janaet al.,IJSID , 2012,2(3),386-393 International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries,Volume 2, Issue3,May-June2012 389 MESOCARP- Consist of parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells. Parenchyma-Two types; pitted palisade parenchyma and non pittedirregularly arranged parenchyma cells. Sclerenchyma cells-Present as discrete sclerotic braces of continuous cylinder of cellsat each rib containing vascular trace. Cells thick-walled,compactlyarranged, hexagonal, cell with lumen. TESTA/ SEED COAT Attached with pericarp, approximately 0.02 mm thick, made up of uniseriately arranged, parenchyma cells. ENDOSPERM Persists in mature cypsela, biseriate. Outer layer made up of uniseriatelyarranged,parenchyma cells,comparativelythin than inner layer, made up of uniseriately arranged parenchyma cells. EMBRYO -Mature embryo occupies amajorpart of the cypsela; cotyledons 2 in number, arranged at right angle to the axis of cypsela, containing 10 resinducts (5ducts in each cotyledon).  Sonchus wightianus MORPHOLOGY  ( Fig. 1 M-R) Cypsela homomorphic, 6 mm x 1 mm with pappus, 4mm x 1 mmwithoutpappus, bright brown, banded, oblanceolate,straight, upperparttruncate,whereas basal part slightly tapered, denticulate, ellipsoidal in cross sectional configuration.Surface glabrous, containing 10 conspicuous ribs; alternating with furrow, furrows wider than ribs. The distance between 2ribs 0.20 mm. Surfacehair absent. Morphologically phytomelanin layer absent. At the upper portion of cypsela; stylopodiumpresent, inconspicuously arranged, fully immersed in the nectar.Corona absent. At the basal region of cypsela carpopodiumpresent,narrower thanthe base,symmetric, complete ring-like. Carpopodial cells thick-walled, arranged in single row. At theupper portion of cypsela, pappus present, homomorphic, represented by serrulate setose type of pappus bristle, white incolour, 15-25 in number, united at the base, unequal in length, arranged in one row, persistent.  ANATOMY (Fig. 2 C) Cypsela narrowselliptic in cross section. Ribs present; 10 innumbers, conspicuous. Cypselar wall 0.07 mm and 0.03mm wide at rib and furrow region respectively. Pericarp thick, on an average 0.05 mm wide, differentiated into two zones-epicarp and mesocarp. EPICARP- Uni-seriate, made up of thin-walled, rectangular,compactlyarranged, parenchyma cells. MESOCARP- Consist of both pitted parenchyma and sclerenchyma cells. Parenchymacells-Thin-walled, pitted, hexagonal,compactlyarranged. Sclerenchyma-Cellsthick-walled,compactlyarrangedmore or less hexagonal sclerenchymatous withsmall cell lumen. A single vascular trace present, situated centrally within each sclerotic bracesat each rib. TESTA/ SEED COAT Attached with pericarp,approximately 0.02mm thick, uni-seriate, parenchymatous. ENDOSPERM Persist in mature cypsela, uniseriate, made up of thick-walled, horizontally arranged, parenchyma cells. EMBRYO Mature embryo occupiesa major part of the cypsela; cotyledons 2 in number,arranged oblique to the axis of cypsela,containing 6 resinducts (3ducts in each cotyledon)  Bidyut Kumar Janaet al.,IJSID , 2012,2(3),386-393 International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries,Volume 2, Issue3,May-June2012 390
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