Performance Evaluation of Two Different Seed Cotton Trash Extractors

Abstract: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the performance of two different seed cotton trash extractors, namely: locally manufactured seed cotton trash extractor (i.e., cleaner) and Russian type extractor model YIIX-I, 5T. The
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  American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 12 (10): 1356-1363, 2012ISSN 1818-6769© IDOSI Publications, 2012DOI: 10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2012.12.10.1887 CorrespondingAuthor: Samy A. Marey, Science, Technology and Innovation Unit, The National Plan for Sciences andTechnology, King Saud University, P.O. Box: 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. 1356 Performance Evaluation of Two Different Seed Cotton Trash Extractors S.A. Marey, A.E. Kable andI.F. Sayed-Ahmed  1,22 2,3 Science, Technology and Innovation Unit, The National Plan for Sciences and Technology, 1 King Saud University, P.O. Box: 2454, Riyadh 11451, Saudi ArabiaAgricultural Engineering Research Institute (AENRI), 2 Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box: 256 Dokki, Giza, EgyptDepartment of Agricultural Engineering, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, 3 King Saudi University, P.O. Box: 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia Abstract:  The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the performance of two different seed cottontrash extractors, namely: locally manufactured seed cotton trash extractor (i.e., cleaner) and Russian typeextractor model YIIX-I, 5T. The performance of the two extractors was evaluated in terms of the fiber physical properties, including fiber length, mm (2.5 and 50% span fiber lengths); fiber length uniformity ratio, lint color (color reflectance and color yellowness) and seed cotton grade. The extractors were evaluated at four saw drumspeeds (7.06, 8.63, 10.20 and 12.56 m/s), four feed rates (10, 12.5, 15 and 17.5 kg/min) and three fiber cottonmoisture contents (11.2, 9.8, 7.9%). The results showed that the increase of saw drum speeds, within the rangeof values included in this study, was found to decrease 2.5 and 50% span fiber length and increase the color reflectance, yellowness and seed cotton grade. At all levels of drum speeds and fiber moisture contents in bothextractors, the span fiber length of 2.5 and 50% and the uniformity ratio were found to be proportional to thefeed rate. However, the maximum color reflectance, color yellowness and seed cotton grade could be achievedat feed rat of 10 kg/min in both extractors and all values of moisture contents and drum speeds. The fiber moisture content had high significant effects on fiber span length, uniformity ratio, color reflectance and seedcotton grad. However, the fiber moisture content was found to be proportional to fiber span length anduniformity ratio and inversely proportional to color reflectance and seed grad cotton. A higher seed cottongrade was recorded with the local as mooched extractor than the Russian type. Key words: Seed cotton trash extractor Seed cotton grade Fiber span length Color reflectance and seedcotton grad INTRODUCTION removing leaf material and other fine particles, while bursThe Egyptian cotton still meet a strong demand in thelarge trash [1]. The cylinder cleaner consists of six or marketplace. The manual harvesting of the extra-longseven revolving spiked cylinders that rotate at 400 tostaplecotton achieve higher grade of seed cotton from500 rpm. The centrifugal force created by saw cylinderstheview point of containing foreign materials. High costrotating at 300 to 400 rpm sling off foreign materials whileof manual harvesting will force farmers toward mechanicalthe fiber is held by the saw [2]. The modern burs and stick harvesting sooner or later. Seed cotton mechanicallyextractors are based on sling-off principle of trash removalharvested contains substantial quantities of trashand utilize large-diameter saw cylinders and grid bars tomaterial such as: stems, leaves, hulls and bracts whichextract trash from seed cotton by a combination of must be removed in the early stages before ginning.centrifugal and impact forces. The current systems areApre-cleaning extractor is used for this purpose. Thenormally composed of two extractor type in the cleaningcylinder-typecleaners are generally employed forsystem and extractor feeder in front of the gin stand.and sticks cleaners were employed for removing of the   Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 12 (10): 1356-1363, 2012 1357These systems are generally 80 to 85% efficient inof this study was to evaluate and compare theremoving sticks from seed cotton [3]. Several attemptsperformance of two different seed cotton extractor have been made to study the effect of different operationmachines in the Egyptian cotton.conditions and cotton varieties on physical properties of fiber. Ahmed et al  . [4] found that seed cotton cleaning MATERIALS AND METHODS hadhighly significant effects on fiber properties.However, the more the cotton was cleaned, the higherField experiments were conducted at the Experimental percentage of reflectance (Rd%) and micronaire readingFarm of El-Karada Research Station (31°05’ N and 30°56’were obtained. On the contrary, when further cleaningE) in the Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt to evaluate and comparewasapplied, a low 2.5% fiber span length was obtained.the performance of a locally designed seed cottonOn the other hand, Anthony [5] found that the lessextractor (El-Yamani, 2007) [8] and a Russian typeaggressivecotton-type cleaner would cause less fiberextractor (model YIIX-I, 5T). Giza 86 cotton which wasdamage. Beheary et al  . [6] compared between five cottonmechanically harvested and used as a rough material for varieties (Giza 70, 85, 88 and 89) and they indicated thatcomparing the performance of two extractors.the highest mean values of color brightness (Rd%)Specifications of these extractors are presentedinwere recorded by the highest lint grade of Giza 85 ad 89 inTable 1 and Fig. 1 (a & b) and 2 (a & b). The performancethe first season and Giza 89 in the second season.ofthe extractors was evaluated in terms of the fiber However, the lowest mean values of the same trait werePhysical properties such as: seed cotton fiber length, mmobtained from the cotton grade (Good) of Giza 89 in both(2.5 and 50% span fiber lengths); fiber length uniformityseasons. The grade is a complex idiom for color, trashratio; lint color (color reflectance (Rd) and color content, foreign matter and factors that affect onyellowness) and seed cotton grade, units. The extractorsappearance and quality of cotton. The Egyptian cottonwere evaluated at four different feed rates (10, 12.5, 15 andclassifies into main seven grades this: Extra (E), Fully17.5 kg/min), four saw drum speeds (7.06, 8.63, 10.20 andGood (F.G.), Good (G), Fully Good Fair (FGF), Fully Fair12.56 m/s and three fiber moisture contents (11.2, 9.8 and(FF), Good Fair (GF) and Fair (F). Then it is classified into7.9%).half grade such as: Extra – ¼, F.F + ¼, FG – ¼, G + ¼, G-¼Fibermoisture content of the seed cotton determined….etc. [3]. Nomeer [7] found that increases in lintat cotton testing laboratory, Sakha Agricultural Researchcleaning at the gin tended to improve grade index.Station. Three seed cotton samples each of 100 g weightThe Egyptian cotton varieties are characterizedbywere tested. Other three seed cotton samples each of long-staple and the use of foreign extractors may affects750 g weight were collected for each experiment andon the physical properties of fiber, therefore the objectiveconsidered for determining of physical fiber properties. Table 1: Technical specifications of a new design and Russian extractor machineDesign parametersLocally extractor (Machine A)Russian extractor type YIIX-1, 5Y (Machine B)Length, cm325410Width, cm135210Height, cm230252Weight, kg17502400Source of powerTractor P.T.O. Shaft.Tractor P.T.O. Shaft.Input opening for crop, cm100 × 30125 × 33Out put opening for crop, cm100 × 3025 × 50Diameter of waste conveyer, cm3030 Number of impact drams41Diameter of impact drums, cm3030Length of impact drums, cm100125Hole diameter for curved sieve under impact drumRound holes 10/64¯Oblong holes 3/64¯  Number of saw drum33Diameter of saw drum, cm3030Length of saw drum, cm100125Hole diameter for curved sieve under saw drum, cm21Diameter of waste auger, cm2025  50% span fiber lengthUniformity ratio =×1002.5% span fiber length  Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 12 (10): 1356-1363, 2012 1358Fig. 1-a Fig. 1- bFig. 1: Main components of the locally seed cotton extractor machine1. Mechanical loader.2. Chain conveyer.3. Strip.4. Tank.5. Feeder roller.6. Impact drum.7. Concave.8. Saw drum.9. Doffing drum.10. Trash auger.11. Division.12. Inclined surface.13. Frame body.14. Wheels.15. Hitch point.16. Revolving circleFig. 2-a Fig. 2- bFig. 2: Russian cotton extractor model YIIX-1, 5T1. Cotton conveyer2. Vacuum valve3. Fan4. Doffing drums5. Saw drums6. Shielding7. Repelling drum8. Blade drum9. Shelling drum10. Shelling concave11. Net12. Impurity remover 13. Feeder roller14. Impurity remover net15. Mechanical loader16. Strip drums17. Small sprocket drum18. Rubbing drum19. Impurity remover hose20. Air duct21. Collapsible loader section Laboratory Testing:  The Physical fiber properties were Uniformity Ratio:  The uniformity ratio was expresseddetermined at Fiber Testing Laboratory, CRI, ARC, Giza,as the ratio of uniformity between short and long fiber as follows:length and was determined by using the following Fiber Length:  The digital fibrograph model 630 used todetermine 2.5 and 50% span fiber length according to Mayand Bridges [9].formula:   Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 12 (10): 1356-1363, 2012 1359 Lint Color:  The lint color (reflectance Rd, % anddrum speed. Figs. 3 and 4 illustrate the effect of saw drumyellowness +b) was estimated according to HVI 9000speeds, feed rates and fiber moisture contents on 2.5 andaccording to ASTM [10] (D-1684-96) estimated lint color50% span fiber length for both extractor machines. The 2.5(reflectance Rd, % and yellowness +b).and 50% fiber length decreased as the saw drum speed Seed Cotton Grade:  It was determined by a Fiber Testingcontent decreased from 11.2 to 7.9%. Increasing the feedLaboratory, (CRI, ARC, Gaza), by using the classificationratefrom 10 to 17.5 kg/min leads to increase 2.5 and 50%method.It is done by a three cotton classifier. The gradespan fiber lengths at all experimental levels. Resultswas estimated pre-after extracting and cleaning.showed that the high amount of 2.5 and 50% span fiber  Statistical Procedures:  The combination of moisturecompared to the Russian type. Maximum amount of 2.5%content, feed rate and drum speed were laid out inspan and 50% span fiber length of 32.5 mm and 16.1 mm,randomizedcomplete block design (RCBD) with threerespectively were obtained with the locally extractor atreplications in each machine. A combined analysis wassawdrum speed of 7.06 m/s, feed rate of 17.5 kg/min andusedamong two machines. Data were statisticallyfibermoisture content of 11.2%. This improvement couldanalyzedfor analysis of variance (ANOVA) by usingbe attributed to the minimum the stress on seed cottoncomputer software SAS [11].fiber. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONFiber Length Uniformity Ratio (%):  Results of seedTable 2 summarizes the analysis of variancevariables are shown in Fig. 5. The fiber length uniformity(P-value) for the effects of the machine type, feed rate,ratio significantly affected by the type of extractor, feedfiber moisture content and saw drum speed on fiberrate, fiber moisture content and saw drum speed. The physicalproperties. The physical properties in terms ofuniformity ratio was inversely proportional to feed ratethetested parameters will be discussed in the followingand saw drum speed. Meanwhile, it was proportional tosections.fiber moisture content. At all experimental levels, the use Seed Cotton Fiber Length: The fiber length is an essentialuniformity ratio compared with the Russian type extractor. parameter to determine cotton price in the markets. FiberMaximum fiber length uniformity ratio of 49.5% recordedlengthis classified as: 2.5% span fiber length (mm) andwith the local extractor at saw drum speed of 7.06 m/s,50% span fiber length (mm). The results indicated that thefeed rate of 17.5 kg/min and fiber moisture content of seed cotton fiber length was significantly affected by the11.2%.This is attributed to increasing the amount of seedtype of extractor, feed rate, fiber moisture content and sawcotton fiber length produced by the local extractor.increased from 7.06 to 12.56 m/s and the fiber moisturelengths recorded with the locally designed extractor cotton fiber length uniformity ratio as affected by differentof the local extractor led to get a higher fiber length Table 2: Analysis of Variance (P values) for fiber physical propertiesFiber lengthSeed cotton colorSeed cotton color SourceDF2.5% span fiber length50% span fiber lengthuniformity ratioreflectance MeanyellownessMachine (M)1203.347**58.500**12.005**32.000**10.657**Error (a)40.0240.0260.0340.0140.053Moisture content (M.C).2102.774**42.467**40.673**101.746**19.110**M*M.C.21.641**0.375**0.370**0.081**0.092**Feed rate (F)328.665**14.714**19.483**30.927**11.819**M*F30.0170.0250.163**0.099**0.120**M.C.*F60.227**0.072**0.041*0.052**0.131**M*M.C.*F60.0260.0120.0230.063**0.047**Saw drum speed (S)325.221**15.974**27.020**26.712**7.887**M*S30.087*0.095**0.390**0.0110.154**M.C.*S60.161**0.037**0.177**0.093**0.031**F*S90.0450.031**0.0190.040**0.017M*M.C.*S60.315**0.039**0.188**0.141**0.079**M*F*S90.058*0.0180.0210.074**0.008M.C.*F*S180.0430.021 *0.0230.061**0.038**M*M.C.*F*S180.0340.023**0.037*0.047**0.022**Error (b)1880.0290.0110.0150.0150.009Corrected Total187   Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 12 (10): 1356-1363, 2012 1360Fig. 3:Effect of saw drum speed on 2.5% span length, mm at different feed rates of cotton variety Giza 86 having variousmoisture contents in cotton fiber for new locally and Russian type extractor machinesFig. 4:Effect of saw drum speed on 50% span length, mm at different feed rates of cotton variety Giza 86 having variousmoisture contents in cotton fiber for new locally and Russian type extractor machinesFig. 5: Effects of saw drum speed; feed rate and moisture content of fiber on uniformity ratio, (%) for the two extractors.Fig. 6:Effects of saw drum speed on seed cotton color reflectance at different feed rates with cotton fiber having variousmoisture contents for both extractor machines
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