Health & Medicine

Principles of Health and Healing in Islam

1. PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND HEALING IN ISLAM 2. CONTENTS OF THIS PRESENTATION <ul><li>Describe the contemporary concepts health and healing and their critical…
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  • 2. CONTENTS OF THIS PRESENTATION <ul><li>Describe the contemporary concepts health and healing and their critical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>In the light of Quranic verses, present Islamic principles of health and healing. </li></ul><ul><li>Quran’s injunctions regarding Health: Fundamental Duties and Fundamental Prohibitions </li></ul><ul><li>Islam’s strategy for health and healing </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention 1-Primary . Tahara . Nutrition .Exercise 2- Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Health </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Health </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>Finally to summarize </li></ul>
  • 3. Definition of health according to the World Health Organization &quot;WHO <ul><li>“ Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>This widely accepted definition was expanded in the 1970's and 1980’s, as other components were included: intellectual, environmental, and spiritual health. </li></ul><ul><li>In more recent years, this statement has been modified to include the ability to lead a &quot;socially and economically productive life.&quot; </li></ul>
  • 4. Critical analysis of these definitions <ul><li>Health cannot be defined as a state at all, but must be seen as a process of continuous adjustment to the changing demands of living. </li></ul><ul><li>The WHO definition is therefore considered by many as an idealistic goal rather than a realistic proposition </li></ul>
  • 5. Critical analysis <ul><li>Market forces advocate the importance of absolute individual freedom. They strongly resent any suggestion that the demands of society in general and the demands of family in particular must guide individual choices. </li></ul><ul><li>When there are demands to correct the ecology, environment to them just means air and water free of pollution; it has nothing to do with social practices and systems that are dangerous for the health </li></ul>
  • 6. WHO definition does not explain spiritual health <ul><li>Another glaring weakness of the WHO definition is that it fails to properly explain the “spiritual” component of health. </li></ul><ul><li>Some researchers tend to describe spiritual health as a feeling of happiness and contentment. They do not differentiate between “mental health” and “spiritual health”. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health is &quot;a state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life.&quot; </li></ul>
  • 7. Spiritual Health <ul><li>Spiritual health, on the contrary, means an individual’s ability to differentiate between right and wrong and resolve to lead a more righteous life, free of stratagems, deception, dishonesty and selfishness. Islam promotes Spiritual health. </li></ul>
  • 8. Quran’s Position <ul><li>“Health is a state of complete physical, mental, spiritual and social wellbeing, which must be safeguarded not only through the maintenance of a health preserving regime at the personal/individual level, but also through the establishment of a health-protective and promoting family system and a health-protective and promoting social system.” </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>GUIDELINES FOR HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>قُلْ مَنْ حَرَّمَ زِينَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي أَخْرَجَ لِعِبَادِهِ وَالطَّيِّبَاتِ مِنَ الرِّزْقِ قُلْ هِيَ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا خَالِصَةً يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ </li></ul><ul><li>Say: Who hath forbidden the beautiful (gifts) of Allah, which He hath produced for His servants, and the things, clean and pure, (which He hath provided) for sustenance? Say: They are, in the life of this world, for those who believe, (and) purely for them on the Day of Judgment. Thus do We explain the signs in detail for those who understand. </li></ul><ul><li>007.032 (Al-Araaf ) </li></ul>
  • 10. Unhealthy food prohibited <ul><li>حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ وَالْمُنْخَنِقَةُ وَالْمَوْقُوذَةُ وَالْمُتَرَدِّيَةُ وَالنَّطِيحَةُ وَمَا أَكَلَ السَّبُعُ إِلا مَا ذَكَّيْتُمْ وَمَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَأَنْ تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالأزْلامِ ذَلِكُمْ فِسْقٌ </li></ul><ul><li>Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that </li></ul><ul><li>on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah; that which hath been </li></ul><ul><li>killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored </li></ul><ul><li>to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it </li></ul><ul><li>(in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety. </li></ul><ul><li>005.003 (Al-Maeda ) </li></ul>
  • 11. About Environment <ul><li>فَلَوْلا كَانَ مِنَ الْقُرُونِ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ أُولُو بَقِيَّةٍ يَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْفَسَادِ فِي الأرْضِ إِلا قَلِيلا مِمَّنْ أَنْجَيْنَا مِنْهُمْ وَاتَّبَعَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مَا أُتْرِفُوا فِيهِ وَكَانُوا مُجْرِمِينَ </li></ul><ul><li>Why were there not, among the generations before you, persons possessed of balanced good sense, prohibiting (men) from mischief in the earth - except a few among them whom We saved (from harm)? But the wrong-doers pursued the enjoyment of the good things of life which were given them, and persisted in sin. </li></ul><ul><li>011.116 (Hud ) </li></ul>
  • 12. About Personal Hygiene <ul><li>فِي كِتَابٍ مَكْنُونٍ </li></ul><ul><li>In Book well-guarded, </li></ul><ul><li>لا يَمَسُّهُ إِلا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ </li></ul><ul><li>Which none shall touch but those who are clean: </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Qur'an, 056.078-079 (Al-Waqia ) </li></ul><ul><li>وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ </li></ul><ul><li>And thy garments keep free from stain! </li></ul><ul><li>074.004 (Al-Muddaththir ) </li></ul>
  • 13. Unhealthy social practices prohibited <ul><li>يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِنْ نَفْعِهِمَا وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنْفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ </li></ul><ul><li>They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: &quot;In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit.&quot; They ask thee how much they are to spend; Say: &quot;What is beyond your needs.&quot; Thus doth Allah Make clear to you His Signs: In order that ye may consider- </li></ul><ul><li>002.219 (Al-Baqarah ) </li></ul>
  • 14. Mental and spiritual health <ul><li>ثُمَّ كَانَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْمَرْحَمَةِ </li></ul><ul><li>Then will he be of those who believe, and enjoin patience, (constancy, and self-restraint), and enjoin deeds of kindness and compassion. </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Qur'an, 090.017 (Al-Balad) </li></ul>
  • 15. Sexual Hygiene <ul><li>وَلا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلا </li></ul><ul><li>Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful (deed) and an evil, opening the road (to other evils). 017.032 (Al-Isra) </li></ul><ul><li>وَاللَّذَانِ يَأْتِيَانِهَا مِنْكُمْ فَآذُوهُمَا فَإِنْ تَابَا وَأَصْلَحَا فَأَعْرِضُوا عَنْهُمَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ تَوَّابًا رَحِيمًا </li></ul><ul><li>If two men among you are guilty of lewdness, punish them both. If they repent and amend, Leave them alone; for Allah is Oft-returning, Most Merciful. </li></ul><ul><li>004.016 (An-Nisa) </li></ul>
  • 16. Mother & Child Health <ul><li>أَسْكِنُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ سَكَنْتُمْ مِنْ وُجْدِكُمْ وَلا تُضَارُّوهُنَّ لِتُضَيِّقُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ وَإِنْ كُنَّ أُولاتِ حَمْلٍ فَأَنْفِقُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ حَتَّى يَضَعْنَ حَمْلَهُنَّ فَإِنْ أَرْضَعْنَ لَكُمْ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ وَأْتَمِرُوا بَيْنَكُمْ بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَإِنْ تَعَاسَرْتُمْ فَسَتُرْضِعُ لَهُ أُخْرَى </li></ul><ul><li>Let the women live (in 'iddat) in the same style as ye live, according to your means: Annoy them not, so as to restrict them. And if they carry (life in their wombs), then spend (your substance) on them until they deliver their burden: and if they suckle your (offspring), give them their recompense: and take mutual counsel together, according to what is just and reasonable. And if ye find yourselves in difficulties, let another woman suckle (the child) on the (father's) behalf. </li></ul><ul><li>065.006 (At-Talaq) </li></ul>
  • 17. On the basis of these verses, it is not difficult to conclude <ul><li>In Islam, health is not a separate entity but one of the essential constituents of peace, which comprise peace at the individual, family and social level. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three tiers of society: individual, family and society. All three have equal importance and none can be sacrificed through the sword of the other. Health therefore too has to involve all the three. </li></ul>
  • 18. Prohibitions <ul><li>Islam declares prohibited all those things and practices that do not form parts of the normal requirements of the body and can directly lead to the development of a disease, which more often than not becomes fatal or causes physical handicaps like blindness, paralysis, etc. (Alcohol, pork, unhealthy sexual practices </li></ul>
  • 19. Makruh & Mustahab <ul><li>Islam declares makruh or undesirable all those things and practices, which may harm the health but are neither usually fatal, nor lead to any physical handicap like blindness, paralysis etc </li></ul><ul><li>Islam declares Mustahab or desirable or obligatory all those things and practices that have beneficial effect on the health of the individual or society in general. (Circumcision, several foods, Ablution, Prayer, Istanja, etc.) </li></ul>
  • 20. Islam’s multi-pronged strategy to promote health and to treat illness. <ul><li>1. Primary Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>• Istanja (Washing of private parts after urinating), which has huge protective effects against the urogenital infection; </li></ul><ul><li>• Wudu (Ablution), which involves washing of the exposed organs and mouth reducing the risks of mouth infections, cardiovascular problems, skin infections and cancers and eye infections; </li></ul><ul><li>• Ghusal-Washing of private parts after intercourse and bathing as son as possible; which will decrease the chances of sex related diseases; </li></ul>
  • 21. Primary prevention in Islam <ul><li>• Total ban on premarital, extramarital sex and promiscuity, homosexuality and prostitution, which all are the leading factors responsible for propagation of various sex related disorders </li></ul><ul><li>• Avoidance of sex during menses, which again prevents from urogenital infections; </li></ul><ul><li>• A compulsory period of Iddah (waiting period) between two marriage partners, which again is very important in preventing sex transmitted diseases. </li></ul>
  • 22. Primary prevention in Islam <ul><li>• Total ban on the production, serving and use of alcoholic beverages, </li></ul><ul><li>• Total ban on all addicting substances including drugs and smoking, </li></ul><ul><li>• Total ban on gambling, which will prevent pathological gambling and suicides; </li></ul><ul><li>• Breast-feeding for two years that decreases the chances of a woman getting pregnant before the expiry of the 2 year period </li></ul>
  • 23. 2-Secondary prevention: <ul><li>vaccines, </li></ul><ul><li>safe drinking water, </li></ul><ul><li>use of pastes and creams to prevent skin diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Circumcision that prevents from Phimosis, Paraphimosis, sex transmitted diseases including AIDS and the Cancer of Cervix (among women); can also be included as a method of secondary prevention, as it involves a surgical procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>Miswak (Brushing of teeth), which has a remarkable preventive effect on the infective diseases of teeth, gums and several internal organs, is also a part of secondary prevention </li></ul>
  • 24. Nutrition <ul><li>يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ كُلُوا مِمَّا فِي الأرْضِ حَلالا طَيِّبًا وَلا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُبِينٌ </li></ul><ul><li>O ye people! Eat of what is on earth, Lawful and good; and do not follow the footsteps of the evil one, for he is to you an avowed enemy. </li></ul><ul><li>002.168 (Al-Baqarah ) </li></ul>
  • 25. Nutrition <ul><li>يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا أُحِلَّ لَهُمْ قُلْ أُحِلَّ لَكُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتُ </li></ul><ul><li>They ask thee what is lawful to them (as food). Say: lawful unto you are (all) things good and pure: </li></ul><ul><li>005.004 (Al-Maeda ) </li></ul>
  • 26. Moderation in eating <ul><li>كُلُوا مِنْ طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَلا تَطْغَوْا فِيهِ فَيَحِلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ غَضَبِي وَمَنْ يَحْلِلْ عَلَيْهِ غَضَبِي فَقَدْ هَوَى </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eat of the good things We have provided for your sustenance, but commit no excess therein, lest My Wrath should justly descend on you: and those on whom descends My Wrath do perish indeed! </li></ul><ul><li>020.081 (Ta-Ha ) </li></ul>
  • 27. No excessive eating <ul><li>يَا بَنِي آدَمَ خُذُوا زِينَتَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا وَلا تُسْرِفُوا إِنَّهُ لا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ </li></ul><ul><li>O Children of Adam! wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer: eat and drink: But waste not by excess, for Allah loveth not the wasters. </li></ul><ul><li>007.031 (Al-Araf [The Heights]) </li></ul><ul><li>In one Hadith, Prophet (SAW) advised to keep 1/3 stomach empty when we finish the meal. </li></ul>
  • 28. Emphasis on fruits and vegetables <ul><li>لَهُمْ فِيهَا فَاكِهَةٌ وَلَهُمْ مَا يَدَّعُونَ </li></ul><ul><li>(Every) fruit (enjoyment) will be there for them; they shall have whatever they call for; 036.057 (Ya-Seen) </li></ul><ul><li>لَكُمْ فِيهَا فَاكِهَةٌ كَثِيرَةٌ مِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ Ye shall have therein abundance of fruit, from which ye shall have satisfaction.043.073 (Az-Zukhruf) </li></ul><ul><li>وَمِنْ ثَمَرَاتِ النَّخِيلِ وَالأعْنَابِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًا وَرِزْقًا حَسَنًا إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لآيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ </li></ul><ul><li>And from the fruit of the date-palm and the vine, ye get out wholesome drink and food: behold, in this also is a sign for those who are wise. 016.067 (An-Nahl) </li></ul>
  • 29. Value of exercise in maintaining health <ul><li>Prophet's (S.A.W) advised all Muslims to teach their children </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming, </li></ul><ul><li>Archery </li></ul><ul><li>Horse riding. </li></ul><ul><li>He used to walk at fast pace </li></ul><ul><li>He ran race with his wife, Ayesha (Ra) </li></ul><ul><li>He used to work with his hands whether at home, in the kitchen, or with his companions collecting wood for fire, </li></ul>
  • 30. Affliction with diseases <ul><li>مَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِنْ نَفْسِكَ وَأَرْسَلْنَاكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولا وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever good, (O man!) happens to thee, is from Allah; but whatever evil happens to thee, is from thy (own) soul. and We have sent thee as a messenger to (instruct) mankind. And enough is Allah for a witness.4.079 (An-Nisa) </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the common chronic illnesses, coronary heart disease, hyper-tension, diabetes, peptic ulcer disease, obesity and depression have common man-made etiology, that is rich food, too much food, too much salt, too much sugar, smoking, stress and alcoholism </li></ul>
  • 31. What to do when faced with disease? <ul><li>وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلا كَاشِفَ لَهُ إِلا هُوَ وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;If Allah touch thee with affliction, none can remove it but He; if He touch thee with happiness, He hath power over all things. </li></ul><ul><li>006.017 (Al-Anaam ) </li></ul>
  • 32. Treatment: <ul><li>Narrated Usamah ibn Sharik: </li></ul><ul><li>The desert Arabs then came from here and there. They asked: Apostle of Allah, should we make use of medical treatment? He replied: </li></ul><ul><li>Make use of medical treatment, for Allah has not made a disease without appointing a remedy for it, with the exception of one disease, namely old age. </li></ul><ul><li>Abu Dawood </li></ul>
  • 33. Treatment <ul><li>عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ دَاءً إِلَّا أَنْزَلَ لَهُ شِفَاءً </li></ul><ul><li>Narrated Abu Hurairah: </li></ul><ul><li>The Prophet said, &quot;There is no disease that Allah has created, except that He also has created its treatment.&quot; </li></ul>
  • 34. Therapeutic modalities <ul><li>1-Natural products includi
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