Rites of passage strangest.docx

Rites of passage strangest The rites of passage from childhood to adulthood is a phenomenon that is present in many cultures throughout the world, possibly the best known being the Jewish rite of Bar Mitzvah and the Fifteenth Birthday Party held in several countries Latin America. But not all these rituals are so conventional throughout the world, as there are some cultures and tribes are exceeded (and by far) than normal, these are the strangest of the world: 10 Algonquin Indians (Cana
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  Rites of passage strangest The rites of passage from childhood to adulthood is a phenomenon that is present in many cultures throughout the world, possibly the best known  being the Jewish rite of Bar Mitzvah and the Fifteenth Birthday Party held in several countries Latin America. But not all these rituals are so conventional throughout the world, as there are some cultures and tribes are exceeded (and by far) than normal, these are the strangest of the world: 10 Algonquin Indians (Canada). The children of this tribe, located near Quebec, have a rite of passage to adulthood in which a drug known as wysoccan is used, which is about 100 times stronger than LSD, and its effects hallucinations, tachycardia , amnesia and hypothermia The aim of such a martyrdom is provoke a state of amnesia to forget all the adult experiences as a child. Unfortunately, the effect of the drug not only erases the bad memories, but everyone, including your family, how to talk and even his own name. If by chance the guy is showing signs of remembering anything after spending three weeks in a cage drugged, then applies a second treatment, even stronger. 9 Vanuatu (Vanuatu). Islander children in this country in the southwestern Pacific N'gol perform the ritual (land diving), which consists of a kind of  bungee jumping, but their way, ie, from precarious platforms and running as close to the ground, because what are the more, loves more wealth and  provide them with the gods in their adulthood. 8 Hamar (Ethiopia). Between 12 and 15 years, children of this tribe have to face one of the most tense moments of his life, and they must jump over a series of cows placed in row 4 times from side to side without falling, because if they do they lose all respect for their relatives throughout their lives, in addition to all women. 7 Ogiek (Kenya). Their rite of passage is the same for boys than for girls, and is between 14 and 16 years of age. Consists of circumcision, living for four weeks without any contact with the opposite sex and adult people, in the middle of the jungle. They are painted with white clay and charcoal in order to look authentic wild creatures. 6 Tukanas (Colombia). The Festa das Novas Flies is the rite of passage into womanhood in this tribe used the Northwest Amazon. It happens when the first period, after which it is kept cut the girl for about 8 weeks in a room of the house built for this purpose is coming. During this period you will  be led to believe that it is initiated in the underworld and will be attacked at some point by a demon named Noo. To complete the rite the other inhabitants of the house in that room delve disguised with masks and hoods making believe they are incarnations of Noo. After this, the girl's body is  painted white so as to ward off evil, taking it to the third morning of that room like a real woman. 5. Okrika (Nigeria). The girls of this tribe are given a lot of eating and drinking two days after his fifteenth birthday, plus they should sing songs related to this ritual during those two mornings. All this is done for the year no drought in town and the evil spirits away. 4 Mardudjara (Australia). When a child reaches the age tribe eta 16 years, tribal leaders led him to a fire and lie down by the fire. The other members of the tribe around the boy while singing and dancing. Another group of men called the Mourners, moan and cry as she made the boy circumcision. The leader who takes care of the circumcised child sitting on his chest in front of the penis. Lift and rotate the foreskin in order to cut it. Two men take turns to cut the skin with knives to have magical powers. The boy bites a boomerang while the operation takes place. When circumcision is completed, the boy kneeling in a special container that is placed over the fire so that the smoke can rise and purify his wound. While still sitting still and sore, leaders ask you to open your mouth and swallow a good meat without chewing. That meat is in fact his own foreskin, which is reported to the young after having swallowed, telling you just eat their own children. Months later, comes the second part of the initiation, called subincision. Leaders take the boy back to the fire. Again there are singers and dancers. Again a leader sits on the young man's chest and back to grab his penis. Now a small wooden stick is inserted into the urethra to provide support for the knife that you cut from the frenulum (under the head of the penis) to almost the scrotum. After subincision, young stands in the fire and allows your blood splatter burning. Since then, the young must bend down to pee, just like a woman. In fact, some anthropologists believe subincision ceremony is a kind of simulation of menstruation, to allow men to better understand and sympathize with the women of the tribe. 3.-Mawé Sateré (Brazil). This Amazonian tribe, the rite of passage to adulthood is to put your hand 20 times in a glove full of bullet ants, which are  between 15 and 25 millimeters, but their sting say giving a pain like a bullet , lasting approximately 24 hours the same. If the youth gets to endure the  pain of so many painful bites and so will be considered a true warrior Mawé. Some men to demonstrate their masculinity are able to repeat this ritual as often as possible. 2 Matis (Brazil). For a child of this tribe is accepted as a man, he must bear to inject poison into her eyes, as they say increase your ocular capacity; thereafter must endure 20 minutes all strokes and lashes given by the other members of his family; Finally, the child's arm is burned in order to insert  poison is supposedly because this increases the strength of the child, which usually causes fainting, vomiting and sometimes convulsions in the young. Once the child passes these tests is accepted as a man of the tribe. 1 Sambia (Papua New Guinea). At age seven, children of this tribe are separate from all female, including her mother. This separation is so extreme, that women use different ways than men to move. After being separated from women, young people are subjected to some brutal rituals. The first is to nosebleeds. The young man is tied to a tree and her nose is pierced with sharp tree branches until blood flows constantly and abundantly until the boy weakens and fades. The purpose of this is to  prepare the young for life as a warrior. The second part of this ritual has to do with the belief that the Sambia men and women are born with a Tingu, which is the body part that allows  procreation. The tingu woman ready to play when the first menstruation occurs. In contrast, men are born with their dry tingu and the only way to fill it is with the male milk which is nothing but the semen of other men sexually mature. They believe that drinking male scent of other men will make the boys are strong and virile. That's why in the privacy of the forest, a young man perform oral sex on others, usually singles between 13 and 21 slightly older men. Participants are advised to drink the male essence in the widest possible to obtain more power. Around age 20, a man of Zambia is ready to get married, but before they perform the ceremony, leaders must teach the young to protect the secrets of the impurities contact with women. For example, during sex, a man must place mint leaves in his nostrils and into his mouth to prevent and mask the smell of his wife's genitals. Even more, when a man has sex with his wife, you are advised not penetrate deeply because this practice increases the likelihood of contamination with women. The final stage occurs when a man becomes a father Sambia. After his wife gives birth, she finally found the young man at last is a real man.  bullfights There is nothing so pathetic as a crowd of apathetic bystanders witnessing the enthusiasm with indifference or unequal confrontation between a noble bull and a gang of thugs unbalanced destroying an innocent animal that does not understand the reason for your pain ...  An annual blood bath billion euros Cruelty and deception Bullfights are a shameful spectacle in three acts, about twenty minutes long, which staged the false superiority and sick fascination with blood and meat feeding, perversely ethics and dietetics, who believe they have a divine right to dispose at will of the life of other sentient beings, even to justify and trivialize the death of the bull as art and entertainment; pathological behavior arises from an inability to cope with the pain of the victims and an irrepressible morbidity at the prospect of being witnessed in some gore, or the death of the matador; a random, infrequent (a bullfighter bulls slaughtered per 40,000), especially avoidable risk, however, increases the macabre nature of the run. A cruel and unsupportive charity As butchers and war, bullfighting have bad image, and it is not easy to present death as art, food and freedom. But if the requirement is a feast for the killing of an animal, and the shots are the precursors of freedom, those who profit by promoting fun at the expense of animal life also need to justify and focus the attention of consumers and users in the expected utility of their products and services to support works of social interest; for example, through a charity run, and unsupportive aberrant act, however, can serve to reassure some claim consciousness, especially if the bloodshed allegedly  benefits a nursing home, the Sisters of the Poor , an association that advocates for the disabled as the Padre Arrupe Foundation, or institutions such as the Spanish Cancer Association or the Red Cross, which also became part of the bullfighting business exploitation rental service in the square pads Sevilla. The destruction of any life, supposedly for the benefit of others, is ethically unacceptable; but this did not prevent the nuns of the Brotherhood of Santo Cristo del Consuelo and Our Lady of the Abandoned held last year in Ciudad Real a bullfight or bull-religious festival in breach of Article 2418 of the Catechism, which says to do animals suffer is against human dignity. Another amusing example, unbecoming of a democratic and civilized society, which is not related to a supportive and caring attitude towards the disabled and animals took place in Alcuéscar, Cáceres, where the mayor built with public money a ramp and a special area for than 80 spectators in wheelchairs could witness a disgusting lynching physically healthy animals. The Malaga Provincial Government has also joined this unusual bullfighting interest in the physically disabled, providing public money to the Plaza de la Malagueta is the first in the country to install a lift for the disabled, which were previously transferred in arms by employees enabling the ring to everyone, with the creation of ramps to the square and a railing to hold wheelchairs. Public administrations, owners of 65% of the more than three hundred Spanish bullrings, despite complaints from the vast majority of taxpayers who do not want their taxes to support this barbaric bullfighting national interests are desperately trying to maintain and expand continue to require a greater number of runs in the tender for the award of bullfighting competitions; one, aesthetically impresentable annual carnage, with over a thousand  performances staging the slaughter of a peaceful herbivore ending at the rendering plant, threatening to drown in blood, even the interest of his most loyal and unconditional accomplices, ethics and physically disabled, a cowardice that debases all. A sinister farce imposed as a national holiday Behind the barrier that isolates them from the blood, fans and curious, addicted to death and the pain of others, boast an aberrant feeding and barren  biocide with season tickets that allow them to see over and over again in a nauseating spectacle torture which, one after another, thousands of times, six magnificent animals, conditioned from birth to represent, along with the horse, the more fatal role of a fateful script, divided into three lots , in which a sinister mercenaries show their contempt for life, stalking and punishing a noble bull, manipulated and betrayed, with sharp spears and  pikes, to death, suffocated or drowned in their own blood to the lungs destroyed by the sword of the matador, or Sticking with a dagger with trying seccionarle spinal cord. May have been subjected, according to veterinary studies, all kinds of fraudulent mortifications, including, besides shaving (which, according to Article 47.2 of the 1996 regulation, are allegedly responsible breeders), drug delivery and purgative, acting as mesmerizing and tranquilizers, may cause shortness of locomotor coordination and vision defects before taurine farce and being dismembered by biting, which pierce the iron in the rubble puja, opening, as a lever, tremendous hole spreader, cutting and tearing tendons, ligaments and muscles of the neck to force him to lower his head and might kill more easily. Continuing on the torture of the flags; three pairs of sharp, stabbing spears of steel (also called alegradores ), who broke her neck, taking strength and vitality before being estoqueado by assassins sword and dagger; awarded a task ears, tails and legs ripped from their victims, even before his death, as trophies that testify to the degree of dehumanization of his executioners cowards and those who encourage them unconscious with a complicit silence or crying. Bullfights, besides lacking sense of ethics and social support, encourage contempt for animals and lack of solidarity among citizens, accustomed to remain unmoved by the lynching of a living being. Not being either a show that has the full support of its most fervent supporters protesting against the invalidity of pseudotoros and repeated breach of the rules governing torture the animal increasingly weakened and devoid of caste , suffering the painful indignity of shaving, a practice that involves cutting a piece of python within the mueco where he was immobilized, suffering called traumatic lumbago, and shattering the muscles and tendons to desperately fight to throw off the yoke that holds his head out in the drawer ramshackle  pens square, where he arrived crippled and powerless to face the heartbreaking jabs that inflicts the picador. A shameful fraud and widely tolerated, as the bulls themselves, which should be enough to publicly condemn and isolate the thugs who have imposed the institutional approval of their  political vassals, this dirty business as an emblem of black and Spain party national . The Art of War as an educational and cultural model, religious Although the declining popular support for bullfights, cruel to the parties depend on the degree of support from the media, the economic interests and  public and religious institutions that have traditionally justified and maintained political and materially, in exchange for selling his soul to the devil or to the highest bidder, allowing the implementation of the status quo of bullfighting and loss of ethical and religious current model of selfish, intolerant and cruel society values, manifested through bullfighting broadcasts, sports and domestic violence and reality shows in general, with an accomplice, selfish or ignorant voters who actively or passively legitimize institutionalized violence without understanding the srcin of social conflicts and local wars and transnational condition silent and mortgage the present and the future of humanity. The promotion of cruelty and disregard for life reaches even redefine and condition the behavior and cultural identity of the fans to the blood, through new games like Torero, art and passion in the sand with an option presented by matador, who teaches two players the most refined  techniques to torture and kill their victims or potential virtual. As efforts clearly biased to present a bullfight symbolically boldly or subtly, as a fascinating and respectable artistic expression through film or theater, in works like Carmen and Don Juan in the arena Salvador Távoras that fill the scenes of royal blood, shed to satisfy the curiosity of the spectators, or the movie Talk to Her by director Pedro Almodóvar, who organized death bullfights in Madrid and Guadalajara, which cost the lives of several bulls, destroying the magic of cinema bloodless blood to stain the viewers and make them unwitting accomplices in an ethically incomprehensible and unjustifiable atrocity. One of the factors that contribute to maintaining and promoting bullfighting is the contribution of public money from local and regional bullfighting schools institutions that emerged alongside the old municipal slaughterhouse, where children twelve and fourteen are trained in the art of killing through competitions and practices calves and cows, suffering crippling injuries and even, as in the Madrid bullfighting school, mutilation of the ears and tail before he died. Atrocities that are part of the ritual of bullfighting tauricida, supported and justified by bullfighting representatives of culture, as the writer and professor of ethics at the Complutense University of Madrid defender bullfights and victims of terrorism, Fernando Savater , who  boasts that the atrocities sometimes have merit, aesthetic and ethical demagogic justifying cruelty by not being, he said, the purpose of fun, but a necessary ingredient. The government of Andalusia, which also supports bullfighting, bullfighting schools justifies subsidizing doing a partial reading of Articles 35 and 46 of the Spanish Constitution, dealing with the right to work and free choice of a job or a profession and the promotion and preservation of cultural heritage Spanish, regardless of Article 15 concerning the right to life, without fear of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment, which conveniently does not apply to bulls and horses victims of the runs. Other economic factors that contribute to maintaining the runs are attendance, nothing pleasant, casual tourist supports, often unintentionally, the morbid spectacle and the economic diversification of the arena. Also, while some farmers benefit from the financial assistance of the European Union, for the production of meat, other public subsidies allow the celebration of bullfighting in towns and cities that lack the financial means to arrange them on your own. The sale of meat from slaughtered animals to the bullfighting gourmets who want to ignore or neglect the central release of toxins produced by the stress of the victims and the usual tobacco-related diseases, such as tuberculosis, nephritis and hepatic parasitosis, also contributes to make more profitable taurine slaughter. Despite the lack of public support for the cruel shows the latest statistics, coinciding with the rise of vegetarianism / veganism and the pursuit of spiritual values based on respect for life; anthropocentric without absurd or religious exemptions, taurine mafia, macabre than ever in its history has wanted to know about animal protection laws (incompatible with your tauricida activity, destroyer of men and horses), desperately trying to delay the inevitable end of a bloody dictatorship extending their tentacles bullfighting satellites from Europe, America and other potential fiefdoms, imposing a humiliating spectacle and remodeling or designing new multipurpose torture centers, covered or retractable roof, and equate to subsidize the martyrdom of animals and musicals more lucrative art, like billionaire city center of Burgos, scheduled for 2004. A historical perspective Although bullfights are a unique and shamefully Spanish show, his rise to the bloody Roman games and cruel venationes where thousands of animals are killed for the amusement of blood thirsty public and back strong emotions. According to Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, Julius Caesar introduced the circus games in the battle between the bull and the matador armed with sword and shield, plus the run a bull who overthrew the knight holding it by removing horns. Another figure at that time, according to Ovid, was the call Karpóforo, forcing the bull to charge using a red scarf. The sacrifice of bulls was also included among the rites and customs that the Romans introduced in Hispania. In Crete, in addition to the story of Greek mythology tells the adventures of Ariadne, daughter of King Minos and Theseus killed the Minotaur, no record of the celebration of games in the square of Knossos, in whose palace, known as the labyrinth can be seen frescoes showing men and women in bullfighting scenes, perhaps guided by the same myths and ignorance foolish to characterize a peaceful monster or animal as a virtual enemy, turning real victim of our failure as evolutionary beings human trafficking to life and the pain of those without arbitriamente our unearned privileges. Harassment and killing of bulls in Spain as fun ritual The first historical reference to a run dating back to 1080, as part of the wedding celebrations infant Sancho de Estrada, in Ávila. As there is a  psychological connection between the run and the celebrations for the imaginary libidinous ritual symbolism between bull and matador, or between male and female, with branches in folklore and festivities, and the libidinal relationship between the public and the bullfighter and other less visible elements that show a spectrum of desires, traumas and unhealthy and sickly passions. Although several writers suggest that El Cid, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, was the first Spanish gentleman who speared bulls, according to Pliny, the  practice was introduced by Julius Caesar himself attacking with a spear riding bulls. A custom that the Moors considered less dangerous than tournaments between Christians, who prepared them for the battles in which men were killed the same way. During the Middle Ages the bullfight takes place and is gradually monopolized by the nobility who, influenced by the gallantry and the ways of the kings, as in Spain today, the public notice was disputed, the attentions of the ladies and respect for others, displaying his courage and gallantry, stalking and spearing bulls, considered enemies of great defensive totemic power. Queen Isabella rejected bullfighting, but not banned, while the Emperor Charles V was known for his love and killed a bull with a lance in Valladolid to celebrate the birth of his son Philip II, in whose reign they proclaimed the first ecclesiastical condemnations. The complicity of power and the church with bullfighting In 1565 a council at Toledo to remedy abuses of the kingdom, the functions declared very displeasing to God, and in 1567 Pope Pius V issued the  bull Dominici Gregis De Salutis, calling for the abolition of all bull runs the Christian kingdoms, threatening to excommunicate their supporters, but his successor Gregory XIII moderates the rigor of the Bull of St. Pius V, according to the desire of Philip II to lift the excommunication. In 1585, Sixtus V re-enforce the judgment, which in turn is canceled in 1596 by Clement VIII. Felipe III renewed and perfected the largest square in Madrid  in 1619, with capacity for almost sixty thousand participants, and Philip IV, in addition to spearing bulls and kill one from a arcabuzazo in Orchard Priora will estoqueó to death more than four boars . During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Spain and southern France and the release of heifers and bulls through the streets and plazas, and other celebrations as fire bulls and embolados bulls, roped or enmaromados comparable in cruelty practiced with aristocratic spectacle of the  bullfight in which the gentleman had a leading role in the harassment and death of the bull, which also suffered a thousand provocations that caused the laborers from burladeros or caponiers, harpoons the mob stabbed him and scratches some cats introduced sometime desbarataba the bull barrel. In Seville, a run is documented, by the Confraternity of Santa Ana, with six or twelve bulls cinteros and ropes to the delight of the people , reaching widespread in big bull riding, with shank, providing a first bull to be mocked, humiliated and killed by the people in the street . The enthusiasm of the nobility remained runs during the reign of Charles II, but since the eighteenth century when the nobility ignored the  bullfighting on horseback, following the banning of Philip V of so-called party horns (also refused to participate in an auto de fe held in his name at the beginning of his reign), the commoner role was imposed in bullfighting on foot, with the novelty of the bull's death at the hands of the vilest  people and unrefined linked to the supply of meat and slaughterhouses, where they developed their particular mode tauricida to form in the seventeenth century gangs of laborers or bearing layers pimps, who joined the pathetic and ruthless riders (varilargueros), running (cause harassment  bull), turn (him spin sharply with deception), and click finish (hamstring) to the exhausted bulls shunning painful encounter with his executioners horse and dogs. From being the confrontation with the bull a sports training a lucrative business that continued to receive real support for the establishment in the Puerta de Alcala in Madrid's old square masonry, Fernando VI donated by the Royal Board of hospitals, which opened in 1754. From the second half of the eighteenth century extensive lands are used for grazing, while the matador sword and became renowned as taurine dictatorship consumed, regardless of the law, with the proliferation of permanent posts, the style of the coliseums Romans, like a cancer of reason, resulting perversion and popularization of bad habits and loss of ethical and social values that enlightened Spaniards tried to correct, without success, with a more humane and socially sound legislation. The humanitarian conscience enlightened despotism and taurine In the late eighteenth century, an effort to civilize the customs of the country of the Count of Aranda, enlightened government minister Carlos III and  president of the Council of Castile, led to the promulgation of the Royal Decree of 23 March 1778, which prohibited bullfighting death in the kingdom, except those intended to cover, by way of arbitration, any expenditure of public or charitable purposes, these being banned also then by the pragmatic-sanction force of law of November 9, 1785, which provided their cessation or suspension. Finally, by the decree of 7 September 1786 a total ban on all celebrations, no exceptions will be consummated, including bull granted temporary or perpetual securities to any body as Arsenals or any other body. In 1790, another Real Provision of the lords of the Council eradicated not only the spectacle of the newly invented modern corrida version, but any celebration that had the bull starring victim, under which it is prohibited by general point abuse bulls run through the streets and called bull rope, by day or by night. In 1805, another royal decree of Charles IV reaffirmed the abolition of bullfighting in Spain and its overseas territories, although some exceptions were tolerated for charity. Prohibition ceased to be effective even before the arrival of Fernando VII, the absolutist king who restores the tribunal of the Inquisition (abolished in 1808) and is supporting the run, while suppressing freedoms and the constitution of 1812 Closing the University classrooms throughout the kingdom, while created in 1830, the first school of bullfighting, Seville-based slaughterhouse, to be closed after his death, in 1834, under the regency of María Cristina. The desire of taurine mafia strengthen their power and impose their show at all costs to the Spanish population increases the pace of construction of cirques of death during the nineteenth century (in response to the legal ban on bullfighting), in which period are erected and the ability of most of which are now in use is increased. Causing the passionate cry of the Spanish literary poet Carolina Coronado (1823-1911) against the profusion of circuses bull in his poetry on the construction of new arenas in Spain. During the nineteenth century the killing of bulls to outlaw regulated and  published in 1836 Bullfighting complete while participating shows in dogs and other animal species, in the style of ancient Roman circus, like the confrontation are organized which took place in Madrid between a bull and an elephant in 1898. The death of thousands of horses, horribly gutted becomes bullfighting in real butchers who just reducing the horse population by half in the last third of the century, which motivates the introduction in 1928 of overalls, a protective quilt French invention, which does not eliminate the suffering of the horse, but avoid shocking to viewers less tolerant blood. Farmers manipulate the behavior and strength of the bull reducing its size and making an accommodating animal via successive crosses to adapt them to the modern bullfighting ritual. Pablo Iglesias (1850-1925), the undisputed star (PSOE) Socialist Party since its legalization in 1881, publicly condemning bullfighting; but his own  party which legalized again in Spain by Royal Decree 176/1992, Juan Carlos I, who, far from criminalizing cruelty offense as befits a democratic constitutional government establishes measures to promote barbarism taurine in response to the tradition and cultural life of the bullfighting , specifying the nature and size of weapons, legally approved, that the executioners should use to torture their victims, such as flags; longer than two centuries ago, black flags (which replaced the fire with powder cartridges), to terrorize the tame bull that does not cooperate with his executioners and the lance or pike, sword or rapier and own lace slaughterhouse and taurine arsenal. Taurine business outside Spain: a matter of life and death Bullfighting in America, France and Portugal went through the same vicissitudes as in Spain and ordered that civil and ecclesiastical prohibitions, with some exceptions, were not observed, but contribute to the development of a different, equally cruel style show, based on the torture and death of a sentient animal. In France, the entry into force of Grammont law banning bullfighting on July 2, 1850, did not prevent the introduction of bull killed the Spanish style, to meet the Spanish Empress Eugenia de Montijo, who personally intervened to request the suspension of the ban that affected a number of runs in Bayonne, scheduled for the summer of 1853, in which 19 bulls and 39 horses died. Despite which, the runs continued to be prohibited legally
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