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Roth 2005 DOE Report the Energy Impact of Commercial Building Controls and Performance Diagnostics

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Roth 2005 DOE Report the Energy Impact of Commercial Building Controls and Performance Diagnostics
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    i Energy Impact of Commercial Building Controls and Performance Diagnostics: Market Characterization, Energy Impact of Building Faults and Energy Savings Potential Prepared by   Kurt W. Roth Detlef Westphalen Michael Y. Feng Patricia Llana Louis Quartararo TIAX LLC 15 Acorn Park Cambridge, MA 02140-2390 TIAX Reference No. D0180 for Building Technologies Program Project Manager: John Ryan (DOE) Contract No.: Concurrent Technologies Corporation Subcontract 030400101, Task Award 50528 November, 2005    ii Disclaimer    This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. None of the following entities makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights: a) the United States Government, b) any agency, contractor, or subcontractor thereof, and c) any of their respective employees. Any use the reader makes of this report, or any reliance upon or decisions to be made based upon this report, are the responsibility of the reader. The reader understands that no assurances can be made that all relevant factors have been identified. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency, contractor or subcontractor thereof. The views and opinions of the authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.  Available to the public from: National Technical Information Service (NTIS) U.S. Department of Commerce Springfield, VA 22161 (703) 487-4650 NTIS Number: PB2006-100567    iii T ABLE OF C ONTENTS  S ECTION  P AGE  1   A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................1-1   L IST OF A BBREVIATIONS AND A CRONYMS ......................................................1-3   2   E XECUTIVE S UMMARY .............................................................................2-1   2.1   The Energy Impact of Faults................................................................2-2   2.2   Energy Saving Potential of Control and Diagnostic Approaches....2-4   2.3   Barriers to Controls and Diagnostics.................................................2-8   2.4   Key Opportunities for Greater Deployment of Building Controls and Diagnostics..........................................................................................2-11   3   I NTRODUCTION .......................................................................................3-1   4   C OMMERCIAL B UILDING C ONTROLS .........................................................4-1   4.1   Control Strategies and Algorithms.....................................................4-2  4.1.1 Types of Control Actions................................................................4-3 4.2   Diagnostics............................................................................................4-7  4.2.1 Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics Methods...................4-8 4.2.1.1   First Principle-Based Methods........................................4-9   4.2.1.2    Data Driven Methods.....................................................4-12  4.2.2 Commissioning FDD....................................................................4-13 4.2.3 FDD Thresholds............................................................................4-15 4.2.4 EMCS Diagnostics........................................................................4-16 4.2.5 Equipment-Level Diagnostics......................................................4-20 4.3   Building Controls Communications..................................................4-20  4.3.1 Communications Protocols...........................................................4-21 4.3.1.1    BACnet  TM  .......................................................................4-23   4.3.1.2    LonWorks ® .....................................................................4-23   4.3.1.3    Enterprise Networks.......................................................4-24   4.3.1.4    Lighting Control Protocols............................................4-27    4.3.1.5   Current State of Controls Interoperability....................4-28  4.3.2 Building Controls Media..............................................................4-28 4.3.2.1   Wireless..........................................................................4-29   4.4   Energy Management Control Systems (EMCS)...............................4-34  4.4.1 Integrated Building Systems.........................................................4-40 5   T HE B UILDING C ONTROLS M ARKET AND H OW I T I NFLUENCES B UILDING C ONTROLS I NVESTMENTS .............................................................................5-1   5.1   Sales.......................................................................................................5-1   5.2   Market Drivers for Existing Buildings.................................................5-3   5.3   New Construction Practices................................................................5-6  
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