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Social Organization and Interaction in Bronze Age Eurasia: A Bioarchaeological and Statistical Approach to the Study of Communities

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Social Organization and Interaction in Bronze Age Eurasia: A Bioarchaeological and Statistical Approach to the Study of Communities
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  vi TABLE OF CONTENTSPREFACE.............................................................................................................................. XXIII   1.0   INTRODUCTION: APPROACHES, PERSPECTIVES AND ANALYSES.......... 1   1.1   APPROACHES TO EURASIAN STEPPE ARCHAEOLOGY...................... 7   1.2 PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS FOR THE EURASIAN BRONZE AGE:REGIONAL MODELS, SOCIAL COMPLEXITY, AND IDENTITY........................ 111.2.1   Approach: Towards an Athropological Bioarchaeology......................... 14   1.2.2 Approach: Pathways, Multi-scalar Interaction and Globalization........ 16 1.2.3 Analysis: Multidisciplinary Bioarchaeology............................................. 17 1.3   GOALS OF THIS RESEARCH....................................................................... 25   2.0   LOCAL AND GLOBAL PROCESSES IN EURASIA ........................................... 28   2.1   CONNECTIVITY AND FLOW ....................................................................... 34   2.2   GLOCALIZATION: IDENTIFYING LOCAL WITHIN THE GLOBAL .. 40   2.3   SCALAR ISSUES IN EURASIAN ARCHAEOLOGY: PREVIOUSAPPROACHES TO LOCAL AND GLOBAL TRENDS................................................ 45   2.3.1   Micro-regional and Local Community Approaches in Archaeology ..... 45   2.3.2   Micro-regional and Local Community Approaches to the EurasianSteppe ...................................................................................................................... 48    vii 2.3.3   Supra- and Macro-regional Approaches in Archaeology....................... 53   2.3.4   Supra- and Macro-regional Approaches to the Eurasian Steppe .......... 58   2.4   CONCLUSION: CONNECTIVITY AND FLOW DURING THE BRONZEAGE……………… ............................................................................................................. 66   3.0   EURASIAN ANTHROPOLOGY: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ANDCRITICAL ANALYSES ............................................................................................................ 69   3.1   HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICALRESEARCH IN EURASIA: THE RISE OF ‘ETHNOS’ ............................................... 71   3.2   THE CHASM BETWEEN ARCHAEOLOGY AND PHYSICALANTHROPOLOGY ........................................................................................................... 76   3.3   BUILDING UPON UNSTABLE FOUNDATIONS: CURRENTTHEORETICAL PROBLEMS ......................................................................................... 81   3.4   BUILDING STABLE FOUNDATIONS: ETHNOGRAPHIC MODELINGAND INTERDISCIPLINARY BIOARCHAEOLOGY .................................................. 86   3.4.1   Ethnography of Identity and Differentiation ........................................... 91   3.4.2   Ethnography of Social Structure and Stratification ................................ 96   3.5   CONCLUSION ................................................................................................ 101   4.0   THE MIDDLE AND LATE BRONZE AGE IN NORTH CENTRAL EURASIA:ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ......................... 104   4.1   CHRONOLOGY.............................................................................................. 107   4.2   THEORIES ON THE NATURE OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION INNORTH CENTRAL EURASIA ...................................................................................... 110   4.2.1   Middle Bronze Age Social Organization ................................................. 112    viii 4.2.2   Late Bronze Age Social Organization..................................................... 119   4.3   THE BRONZE AGE IN NORTH CENTRAL EURASIA ........................... 124   4.4   THE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE: SINTASHTA AND PETROVKACOMPLEX OF CULTURES .......................................................................................... 126   4.4.1   Economy and Diet ..................................................................................... 131   4.4.2   Settlements ................................................................................................. 132   4.4.3   Cemeteries ................................................................................................. 136   4.4.4   Bioarchaeology .......................................................................................... 141   4.4.5   Social Differentiation and Identity .......................................................... 144   4.4.6   Conclusions and Future Prospects .......................................................... 149   4.5   THE LATE BRONZE AGE: THE ANDRONOVO DEVELOPMENT ..... 151   4.5.1   Economy and Diet ..................................................................................... 157   4.5.2   Settlements ................................................................................................. 158   4.5.3   Cemeteries ................................................................................................. 160   4.5.4   Bioarchaeology .......................................................................................... 169   4.5.5   Social Differentiation and Identity .......................................................... 172   4.5.6   Conclusions and Future Prospects .......................................................... 174   4.6   COMPARATIVE DISCUSSION OF BRONZE AGE COMMUNITIES .. 175   5.0   BIOARCHAEOLOGY IN CONTEXT: APPROACHES, METHODS, ANDDATA … ... ................................................................................................................................. 182   5.1   BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL APPROACHES ................................................ 183   5.1.1   The Emergence of Bioarchaeology .......................................................... 183   5.1.2   Bioarchaeology in Context: Multi-scalar and Glocalization Theories . 185    ix 5.2   CODING SYSTEMS....................................................................................... 200   5.2.1   Age and Sex ............................................................................................... 201   5.2.2   Dental Disease............................................................................................ 201   5.2.3   Cultural Affiliation ................................................................................... 203   5.2.4   Mortuary Assemblage .............................................................................. 203   5.2.5   Burial Construction .................................................................................. 204   5.2.6   Body Position and Treatment .................................................................. 205   5.3   BIOARCHAEOLOGICAL METHODS ....................................................... 205   5.3.1   Mortuary Statistics ................................................................................... 206   5.3.2   Dietary Reconstruction ............................................................................. 209   5.3.3   Biodistance Analysis ................................................................................. 211   5.4   THE BESTAMAK AND LISAKOVSK COMMUNITIES.......................... 216   5.4.1   Bestamak Cemetery (Middle Bronze Age) ............................................. 216   5.4.2   Lisakovsk Cemeteries (Late Bronze Age) ............................................... 225   5.4.3   Demographic Data (Bestamak and Lisakovsk) ...................................... 239   5.4.4   Dental Indicators of Health (Bestamak and Lisakovsk) ....................... 240   6.0   INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY IDENTITY IN THE BRONZE AGE: ABIOARCHAEOLOGICAL AND STATISTICAL APPROACH ......................................... 242   6.1   EXPLORING IDENTITY, STATUS, AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION INTHE MORTUARY RECORD ........................................................................................ 243   6.2   STATISTICAL MORTUARY METHODS .................................................. 249   6.3   RESULTS OF MORTUARY STATISTICS: THE BESTAMAKCEMETERY (MBA) ........................................................................................................ 250    x 6.3.1................................Intra-cemetery Burial Variation and Patterning ... 250   6.3.2   Identity and Social Structure at Bestamak ............................................. 286   6.4   RESULTS OF MORTUARY STATISTICS: THE LISAKOVSKCEMETERY (LBA) ......................................................................................................... 297   6.4.1   Intra-cemetery Burial Variation and Patterning ................................... 298   6.4.2   Identity and Social Structure at Lisakovsk ............................................ 317   6.5   CONCLUSION ................................................................................................ 326   7.0   PALEODIETARY RECONSTRUCTION ............................................................ 333   7.1   PREVIOUS RESEARCH: DIETARY RECONSTRUCTION IN NORTHCENTRAL EURASIA ...................................................................................................... 335   7.2   CARBON AND NITROGEN STABLE ISOTOPE ANALYSES:MATERIALS AND METHODS ..................................................................................... 339   7.2.1   Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopes ..................................................... 340   7.3   RESULTS: CARBON AND NITROGEN STABLE ISOTOPIC ANALYSES........................................................................................................................... 347   7.3.1   Testing for Collagen Alteration ............................................................... 347   7.3.2   Construction of a Baseline........................................................................ 351   7.3.3   Local Environment, Climate and Vegetational History ........................ 353   7.3.4   Middle to Late Bronze Age Dietary Trends ........................................... 356   7.3.5   Bronze Age Dietary Intake ....................................................................... 358   7.3.6   Intra-cemetery Dietary Differentiation ................................................... 361   7.4   CONCLUSION ................................................................................................ 364   8.0   BIODISTANCE ANALYSES ................................................................................. 373  
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