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Yippee ki-yay, al-Qaeda! 9/11 and its effects on the Hollywood cinematic mediation of terrorism

While the notions of terrorism have existed since the time of Plato and Aristotle, public awareness of such events has only existed since the second half of the 20th century. The changing nature of terrorism has long resulted in a changing onscreen
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  Life Impact The University of Adelaide Slide 0  ANZCA 2011: MEDIA & CITIZENSHIP 7 th July, 2011 ³Yippee ki-yay, al-Qaeda! 9/11 and its effectson the Hollywood cinematic mediation of terrorism.´ Presented by:Jay W. Reid, B.Media(Hons)The University of Adelaide  Life Impact The University of Adelaide  W  HY STUDY TERRORISM? Not the first ever terroristattack, BUT...This single act foreverchanged human history (Dixon, 2004; Giroux, 2004: 9;Young, 2007) Scale of attacks could not becomprehended (Aretxaga,2001: 140; Dixon, 2004a: 9;Muntean, 2009; Rich, 2001) World now split into pre-andpost-9/11 (Young, 2007: 44) Slide 1  Life Impact The University of Adelaide  W  HY STUDY TERRORISM IN FILMS? First site of mediation, and most appropriate medium to explorethe events of 9/11 (Schoop& Hall, 2009: 13; Young, 2007: 31) Industry has forever been changed:±Release dates changed±WTC removed±Accuracy & realism > special effects±Villains quickly changedFilms able to shape public opinion, especially considering reachand distribution of Hollywood productions (Shaheen, 1987: 148-56;2001: 1, 5-11, 30; 2003a: 171-6; 2003b: 80; 2008: xvi-xxii, 18-9, 42-3) Currently large gaps in academic literature! Slide 2  Life Impact The University of Adelaide  W  HY STUDY   DIE HARD ? Not the first terrorist movieby any means...BUT:±Hugely successful±Redefined the genre± µCulturally significant¶  ±(Crawford, 2007: 44;Parshall, 1991; Stilwell,1997: 551-4) Franchise has been focus of little academic research Slide 3  Life Impact The University of Adelaide TERRORISM  W   AVE THEORY (1) Proposed by David C.Rapoport in 2004Divides history of terrorismin 4 wavesEach lasts ~40 years beforebeing replacedWaves have differingmotivations, techniques andtargetsSome opposition to theory,though supported byempirical evidenceConsidered best model (Kurtulus, 2011: 484) Possibility of a 5 th wave in2025 Slide 4 1 st Wave:Anarchists2 nd Wave:Nationalists3 rd Wave:Leftist/Marxist4 th Wave:Religious5 th Wave: ???
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