Agragian disputes

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  Chapter 6 AGRARIAN DISPUTES    In November 19, 1891, Rizal was arrived in Hongkong. He stayed in Hongkong and opened a Medical clinic.    In December 1, 1891, he wrote to his parents asking their permission to return home. And at the same date Manuel Hidalgo, husband of Saturnina sent a letter telling the sad news in Calamba.    Rizal sends a letter to his family to give support.    Students of history agree that conflict between his family and the Dominicans over the hacienda greatly affects and played a pivotal role to the life of Rizal. BRIEF HISTORY OF FRIAR ESTATES IN THE PHILIPPINES   *The srcin of the friar estates can be traced back to land grants awarded to Spanish Conquistadores. * 120 Spaniards were given grants *Sitio de Ganado Mayor- a large tract of land included in land grant *Caballerias- a small tract of land included in land grant Reasons why Spanish hacenderos failed to develop their land 1.   Spanish population in the Philippines was transient. 2.   The market for livestock products, which haciendas offered, remained relatively small until the latter part of the Spanish colonial period. 3.   The Galleon Trade that was based in Manila offered bigger economic rewards and attracted more Spaniards. Since Spaniards lack the interest and inclination to develop their lands, religious orders soon took over the task. Land was acquired through various means:    The lands that Spaniards donated because of Spiritual benefits    The lands or estates that is heavily mortgaged to the ecclesiastics (priest) were eventually purchased by the religious orders themselves. *It was also found that one of the contributors of the Friar Estate was a Filipinos who is under PRINCIPALES, through donations and sales. Preoccupation in the estates was varied during the early Centuries of spanish Colonial rule:     16th-17th Centuries --> the land was primarily for cattle ranch as well as farms for subsistence crops    19th Century --> Rice and Sugar Canes served as main commodities produced in the Haciendas and became important source of income for the religious orders. During 16th and 17th century, the social structure found in haciendas was primarily composed of: 1. Lay brother administrators (top), they were under the direct authority of the heads of their religious orders but they are free to make their own decisions on administrative affairs. 2. Cultivating tenants (below), they were expected to work the land and pay an annual rent, which was usually a fixed amount of harvest and in later centuries, money. *Mid 18th century Inquilinato system- under this system, an individual rented land for fixed annual amount, known as canon. Inquilino (lessee)- he/she was expected to render personal services to his landlords. If they fail to satisfy these requirements, he could face expulsion from the land Kasama (sharecropper)- the one who would take on tye task of cultivating the soil. Three-tiered System ã Landlords - top ã Inquilino - middle ã Sharecropper - bottom -When the inquilino rented or buy the hacienda from the religious hacenderos they freed themselves from their social responsibilities with the sharecroppers and now the inquilinos are the one who has a responsibility with the kasama or sharecroppers. -However, the sharecroppers benefitted for this because they are not engaged with the (polo y servicio) force labor that is demanded by the Spanish government that time. -The downside of this type of arrangement, however, was that two non-cultivating groups further diminished the income of the sharecroppers.  -After the inquilino paid his rent to the religious hacenderos and deducted his own share, the remaining amount of income would then be divided among all the sharecroppers. Hacienda De Calamba Hacienda de Calamba were owned by several Spanish laymen. At the year of 1759, A Spanish laymen named Don Manuel Jaugerui donated the land of hacienda de Calamba to the Jesuits in exchange that he will be allowed to live in the hacienda monastery for the rest of his life. The jesuits was able to claimed the land for only 8 years because of the decree ordered by King Charles III of spain that the Jesuits should be expelled in the philipines. The government turnover the land of hacienda de Calamba to Jesuit temporalities. By the year 1803, The government sold the hacienda de calamba to spanish laymen named Don Clemente de Azansa for 44,507 Pesos. The latter died in the year 1833. And the haciend de calamba which was known to be measured at 16,424 hectares was brought by the dominicans at the amount of 52,000 Pesos. By this time, many familes migrated to the said hacienda including the ancestors of Rizal. Later, their family became the principal inquilimos of hacienda de calamba. Rizal's family rented one of the largest leased lands, measuring approximately 380 hectares -Sugar was a main commodity planted in hacienda -In 1883, Paciano Rizal wrote that the friars were collecting rents without issuing usual receipts. - In 1885, the tenants failed to pay their rents. While the rent increased, the price of sugar was so low. -Those who settled their accounts will be marked “paid,” while those who weren’t able to pay were given ten-day grace period after which,the land will be declared “vacant and the dominican will invite other residents to take over the tenancies. -In 1886, Mariano Herbosa, brother in law of Rizal wrote that they don’t get a receipt every time they pay. Anyway it is valueless as it does not state the amount paid. It only says that the rent for that year has been paid, without stating whether it is one hundred or one thousand pesos. The receipt has no signature in the place where the  amount paid ought to be, though it bears their name. He cannot comprehend why some are signed and others are not. Problems continued to escalate in 1887, the colonial government demanded from the tenants of the hacienda a report on the income and production of the estate because they suspected that the Dominicans were invading payment of their taxes. The tenants complied and submitted a report with the petition authored by Jose Rizal. As a form of retaliation, the friars began to evict tenants who refused to pay rent in 1891. Among those who were exiled were Rizal's family. The experience affected Rizal deeply and the increasing despair he felt from the event would be reflected in his second novel, El Filibusterismo.
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