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Color atlas of human anatomy, vol 3 nerves (kahle, thieme 2003)

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IAt a Glance Introduction Basic Elements of the Nervous System Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves Brain Stem and Cranial Nerves Cerebellum Diencephalon Telencephalon…
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IAt a Glance Introduction Basic Elements of the Nervous System Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves Brain Stem and Cranial Nerves Cerebellum Diencephalon Telencephalon Cerebrovascular and Ventricular Systems Autonomic Nervous System Functional Systems The Eye The EarKahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 Š 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 Š 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.IIIKahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 Š 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.IVColor Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy in 3 volumes Volume 1: Volume 2:Locomotor System by Werner Platzer Internal Organs by Helmut LeonhardtKahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 Š 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.VVolume 3Nervous System and Sensory Organs by Werner Kahle, M.D. Professor Emeritus Institute of Neurology University of Frankfurt/Main Frankfurt/Main, GermanyMichael Frotscher, M.D. Professor Anatomical Institute I University of Freiburg Freiburg, Germany 5th revised edition 179 color plates Illustrations by Gerhard SpitzerThieme Stuttgart ¡ New York Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 Š 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.VI Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available from the publischer 1st German edition 1976 2nd German edition 1978 3rd German edition 1979 4th German edition 1982 5th German edition 1986 6th German edition 1991 7th German edition 2001 1st English edition 1978 2nd English edition 1984 3rd English edition 1986 4th English edition 1993 1st Dutch edition 1978 2nd Dutch edition 1981 3rd Dutch edition 1990 4th Dutch edition 2001 1st French edition 1979 2nd French edition 1993 1st Greek edition 1985 1st Hungarian edition 1996 1st Indonesian edition 1983 1st Italian edition 1979 2nd Italian edition 1987 3rd Italian edition 2001 1st Japanese edition 1979 2nd Japanese edition 1981 3rd Japanese edition 1984 4th Japanese edition 1990 1st Polish edition 1998 1st Serbo-Croatian edition 1991 1st Spanish edition 1977 2nd Spanish edition 1988 1st Turkish edition 1987This book is an authorized and revised translation of the 7th German edition published and copyrighted 2001 by Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany. Title of the German edition: Taschenatlas der Anatomie, Band 3: Nervensystem und Sinnesorgane Translated by Ursula Vielkind, Ph. D., C. Tran., Dundas, Ontario, CanadaSome of the product names, patents and registered designs referred to in this book are in fact registered trademarks or proprietary names even though specific reference to this fact is not always made in the text. Therefore, the appearance of a name without designation as proprietary is not to be construed as a representation by the publisher that it is in the public domain. This book, including all parts thereof, is legally protected by copyright. Any use, exploitation or commercialization outside the narrow limits set by copyright legislation, without the publisher’s consent, is illegal and liable to prosecution. This applies in particular to photostat reproduction, copying, mimeographing or duplication of any kind, translating, preparation of microfilms, and electronic data processing and storage.! 2003 Georg Thieme Verlag Rüdigerstraße 14, D-70469 Stuttgart, Germany http://www.thieme.de Thieme New York, 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10001 U.S.A. http://www.thieme.com Cover design: Cyclus, Stuttgart Typesetting by Druckhaus Götz GmbH, 71636 Ludwigsburg Printed in Germany by Appl, Wemding ISBN 3-13-533505-4 (GTV) ISBN 1-58890-064-9 (TNY)Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.1 2 3 4 5VIIPreface to the 5th Edition of Volume 3 The number of students as well as colleagues in the field who have learned neuroanatomy according to volume 3 of the color atlas has been steadily increasing. Kahle’s textbook has proved its worth. What should one do after taking on the job of carrying on with this text book, other than leaving as much as possible as it is? However, the rapid growth in our knowledge of neuroscience does not permit this. In just the last few years many new discoveries have been made that have shaped the way we view the structure and function of the nervous system. There was a need for updating and supplementing this knowledge. Hence, new sections have been added; for example, a section on modern methods of neuroanatomy, a section on neurotransmitter receptors, and an introduction to modern imaging procedures frequently used in the hospital. The Clinical Notes have been preserved and supplemented in order to provide a link to the clinical setting. The purpose was to provide the student not only with a solid knowledge of neuroanatomy but also with an important foundation of interdisciplinary neurocience. Furthermore, the student is introduced to the clinical aspects of those fields in which neuroanatomy plays an important role. I sincerely hope that the use of modern multicolor printing has made it possible to present things more clearly and in a more uniform way. Thus, sensory pathways are now always presented in blue, motor pathways in red, paraympathetic fibers in green, and sympathetic fibers in yellow. I wish to thank first and foremost Professor Gerhard Spitzer and Stephan Spitzer who took charge of the grapic design of the color atlas and provided their enormous experience also for the present edition. I thank Professor Jürgen Hennig and his co-workers at the radiodiagnostic division of the Medical School of the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, Germany, for their help with the new section on imaging procedures. Last but not least, I would like to thank Dr. André Diesel who took great care in screening the text for lack of clarity and who contributed significantly to the color scheme of the figures, al well as my secretary, Mrs. Regina Hummel, for her help with making the many corrections. My thanks go also to Mrs. Marianne Mauch and Dr. Jürgen Lüthje at Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, for their generous advice and their patience. Michael Frotscher Fall 2002Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 Š 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.IXContentsThe Nervous System.....................................................1Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Development and Structure of the Brain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Development of the Brain . . . . . . . . . Anatomy of the Brain . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evolution of the Brain . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 8 14The Nervous System—An Overall View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development and Subdivision . . . . Functional Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Position of the Nervous System in the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2 2 4Basic Elements of the Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 The Nerve Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18The Nerve Fiber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Methods in Neuroanatomy . . . . . . . . Ultrastructure of the Nerve Cell . . .20 22The Synapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Synapses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neurotransmitters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Axonal Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmitter Receptors . . . . . . . . . . . . Synaptic Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . .24 24 24 26 26 28 30 30Ultrastructure of the Myelin Sheath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of the Myelin Sheath in the PNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of Unmyelinated Nerve Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure of the Myelin Sheath in the CNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Peripheral Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Neuronal Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Neuronal Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3436 36 38 38 38 40Neuroglia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42Blood Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48The Spinal Cord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflex Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gray Substance and Intrinsic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross Sections of the Spinal Cord . . Ascending Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 50 52 54 56Descending Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visualization of Pathways . . . . . . . . . Blood Vessels of the Spinal Cord . . . Spinal Ganglion and Posterior Root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spinal Meninges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Segmental Innervation . . . . . . . . . . . . Spinal Cord Syndromes . . . . . . . . . . .Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 Š 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.58 58 60 62 64 66 68XContents Peripheral Nerves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70Nerve Plexusus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cervical Plexus (C1 – C4) . . . . . . . . . . Posterior Branches (C1 – C8) . . . . . . . Brachial Plexus (C5 – T1) . . . . . . . . . . Supraclavicular Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infraclavicular Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 72 72 74 74 74Nerves of the Trunk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Posterior Branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anterior Branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lumbosacral Plexus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lumbar Plexus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sacral Plexus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 84 84 86 86 90Brain Stem and Cranial Nerves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Longitudinal Organization . . . . . . . . . 102 Cranial Nerves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Base of the Skull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Cranial Nerve Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Medulla Oblongata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Cross Section at the Level of the Hypoglossal Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Cross Section at the Level of the Vagus Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Pons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Cross Section at the Level of the Genu of the Facial Nerve . . . . . . . . . . 110 Cross Section at the Level of the Trigeminal Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Cranial Nerves (V, VII – XII) . . . . . . . . . 112 Hypoglossal Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accessory Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vagus Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossopharyngeal Nerve . . . . . . . . . . Vestibulocochlear Nerve . . . . . . . . . . Facial Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trigeminal Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 112 114 118 120 122 124Parasympathetic Ganglia . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Ciliary Ganglion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Pterygopalatine Ganglion . . . . . . . . . 128Otic Ganglion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Submandibular Ganglion . . . . . . . . . . 130 Midbrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross Section Through the Inferior Colliculi of the Midbrain . . . . . . . . . . Cross Section Through the Superior Colliculi of the Midbrain . . . . . . . . . . Cross Section Through the Pretectal Region of the Midbrain . . . . . . . . . . . . Red Nucleus and Substantia Nigra .132 132 134 134 136Eye-Muscle Nerves (Cranial Nerves III, IV, and VI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Abducens Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Trochlear Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Oculomotor Nerve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Long Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Corticospinal Tract and Corticonuclear Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medial Lemniscus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus . . . . Internuclear Connections of the Trigeminal Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Central Tegmental Tract . . . . . . . . . . . Posterior Longitudinal Fasciculus . .140 140 142 142 144 144Reticular Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Histochemistry of the Brain Stem . . 148Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.ContentsCerebellum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Subdivision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebellar Peduncles and Nuclei . . Cerebellar Cortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neuronal Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152 154 156 160Functional Organization . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Fiber Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Results of Experimental Stimulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle (Restiform Body) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Middle Cerebellar Peduncle (Brachium Pontis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Superior Cerebellar Peduncle (Brachium conjunctivum) . . . . . . . . . 166Diencephalon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Development of the Prosencephalon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Telodiencephalic Boundary . . . . . . . . 170 Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Subdivision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frontal Section at the Level of the Optic Chasm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frontal Section through the Tuber Cinereum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frontal Section at the Level of the Mamillary Bodies . . . . . . . . . . .172Subthalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192172Subdivision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Responses to Stimulation of the Subthalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192174Hypothalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194174Epithalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Habenula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Pineal Gland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Dorsal Thalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Specific Thalamic Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . Nonspecific Thalamic Nuclei . . . . . . Anterior Nuclear Group . . . . . . . . . . . Medial Nuclear Group . . . . . . . . . . . . Centromedian Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral Nuclear Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ventral Nuclear Group . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral Geniculate Body . . . . . . . . . . . Medial Geniculate Body . . . . . . . . . . . Pulvinar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Frontal Section Through the Rostral Thalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Frontal Section Through the Caudal Thalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190178 180 182 182 182 184 184 186 186 186Poorly Myelinated Hypothalamus . Richly Myelinated Hypothalamus . Vascular Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fiber Connections of the Poorly Myelinated Hypothalamus . . . . . . . . Fiber Connections of the Richly Myelinated Hypothalamus . . . . . . . . Functional Topography of the Hypothalamus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194 194 196 196 196 198Hypothalamus and Hypophysis . . . . . 200 Development and Subdivision of the Hypophysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infundibulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blood Vessels of the Hypophysis . . Neuroendocrine System . . . . . . . . . . .Kahle, Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 3 Š 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license.200 200 200 202XIXIIContentsTelencephalon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Subdivision of the Hemisphere . . . . Rotation of the Hemisphere . . . . . . . Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cerebral Lobes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 208 210 212Sections Through the Telencephalon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Frontal Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Horizontal Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Paleocortex and Amygdaloid Body . 224 Paleocortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Amygdaloid Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Fiber Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Archicortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Subdivision and Functional Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ammon’s Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fiber Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hippocampal Cortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 232 232 234Insula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Neocortex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Cortical Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Types of the Neocortex . . . . . . . The Module Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cortical Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frontal Lobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parietal Lobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temporal Lobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occipital Lobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fiber Tracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hemispheric Asymmetry . . . . . . . . . .240 240 242 242 244 246 250 252 254 258 262Imaging Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Contrast Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computed Tomography . . . . . . . . . . . Magnetic Resonance Imaging . . . . . . PET and SPECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 264 266 266Neostriatum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236Cerebrovascular and Ventricular Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Cerebrovascular System . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Arteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Internal Carotid Artery . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Areas of Blood Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Veins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Superficial Cerebral Veins . . . . . . . . . 276 Deep Cerebral Veins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278Cerebrospinal Fluid Spaces . . . . . . . . . 280 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Choroid Plexus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ependyma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circumventricular Organ
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