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From the Forth Lateran Council to the Second Vatican Council

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On the occasion of two decisive anniversaries in church history : 800 years of the 4th Lateran council and 50th years of the 2nd Vatican council , the Pontifical University of the Lateran dedicated on the 9.9.2015, a conference devoted to the changes
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  C  ATTEDRA    PER    LA   T EOLOGIA    DEL  P OPOLO   DI  D IO PRESSO   LA   P ONTIFICIA   U NIVERSITÀ   L  ATERANENSE  ______________________________________________________________________  _________________________  UN’ALLEANZA MAI REVOCATAIl lungo cammino dal Lateranense IV al Vaticano II │ 121 ! 1"# ! 2$1 Conferenza: lunedì 9 novembre 2015Aula Pio XI – Ponti!ia "niver#it$ %ateranen#e &oma ENGLISH %rom t&e %ort& Lateran Council to t&e 'econd VaticanCouncil ! ($$ )ears o* Cat&olic Attitudes to+ards ,udaism Am-assador ret. Mordec&a/ Le+/0 ast Am-assador o* Israelto t&e ol/ 'ee  '(e ta#) I too) u*on m+#elf !ould be ea#il+ a!!om*li#(ed b+ #tatin,t(at t(e relation# bet-een Cat(oli!# and .e-# under-ent a dramati!!(an,e for t(e better #in!e 1215/ A# mu!( a# t(i# #tatement i#!orre!t t(i# an#-er i# #till un#ati#fa!tor+/ e deal -it( an enormou##*an of time e!eedin, more t(an 23 ,eneration# almo#t t(e a,e of 4et(u#ela(/ ften 6i#torian# avoid *a##in, moral 7ud,ement#/ '(e#tud+ of 6umanitie# -a# *er!eived in t(e 19 t(  !entur+ a# a #!ien!e-(i!( re8uired under#tandin, er#t;ndni#< -(erea# =atural #!ien!e#re8uired e*lanation >r)l;run,</ "nder#tandin, be!ame almo#t t(e#i#ter of e!u#in,/ %iterature *rovided u# earl+ eviden!e to t(einterde*enden!e of under#tandin, and *ardonin,/ In ?oet(e@# *la+'or8uato 'a##o -ritten in 1B90 t(e follo-in, 8uotation a**ear#: was wir verstehen, das können wir nicht tadeln" / In free tran#lation: what we do understand, we cannot condemn 1 / It -ould be a mi#ta)e to refrain from moral 7ud,ement -(iledi#!u##in, -(at (a**ened in t(e relation# bet-een Cat(oli!# and .e-# at t(e *eriod of  t(  %ateran !oun!il in 1215 -(i!( too) *la!e(ere around t(e !orner D00 +ear# a,o and b+ t(e #ame to)en in t(e2 nd  ati!an !oun!il -(i!( -a# !on!luded in 1935E onl+ ft+ +ear# a,o/ '(e -a+ I am ,oin, to *ro!eed toda+ -ill be a# follo-#: '(e r#t *art-ill be dedi!ated to Inno!ent III/ and t(e  t(  %ateran !oun!il/ At r#tt(e main a!tor -ill be di#!u##ed: t(e Po*e/ Fe!ondl+ t(e (i#tori!alE*oliti!al environment in -(i!( (e a!ted/ '(irdl+ in brief t(e !oun!il 1 / Torquato Tasso,  II a!t r#t #!ene line 111G/  it#elf/ '(e la#t #e!tion of t(i# *art -ill evaluate t(e relation# of %atinC(ri#tianit+ -it( .udai#m emer,in, before and after t(e !anon# of t(e t(  %ateran !oun!il/ '(e #e!ond *art -ill be dedi!ated to t(e 2 nd ati!an !oun!il and -ill be #tru!tured in a #imilar -a+ a# far a# it i#*o##ible/ 3art One ! T&e %ort& Lateran council Lot&ario di 'egni 411#1511"(6 -ecomes 3oe Innocent III411"( 5121#6 and t&e olitical climate o* &is age / Lothario dei Conti di Segni  !ame from a famil+ of !ount# -(i!(e#tabli#(ed it#elf in t(e area of Ana,ni in %atium/ 6i# #!(ola#ti! -a+ of t(in)in, -a# formed in Pari# and (i# le,al mind in Holo,na in -(i!( (e#tudied from 11BD until 11DB/ Hein, !on#e!rated a# #ubdia)on in11DB (e be!ame t(e +oun,e#t !ardinal in 1190/ 6e -a# ele!ted Po*ein 119D at t(e a,e of GB/ 6e -a# *robabl+ ele!ted be!au#e it -a#time to !(oo#e a +oun,er !andidate -it( *oliti!al !lout in addition to(i# reli,iou# zeal/ 6i# !laim to (i#tori!al fame emer,ed from bein, t(eembodiment of an auto!rati! *er#onalit+ b+ birt( (avin, a *ra!ti!almind b+ *rofe##ion a# a la-+er and bein, a di*lomat b+ *oliti!alin#tin!t/ Inno!ent #a- (im#elf not onl+ a# #u!!e##or to Peter but al#oa# t(e i!ar of C(ri#t/ Inno!ent i# !on#idered a# t(e *o*e -(o #(a*edt(e !entral aut(orit+ of t(e *a*a!+/ urin, t(e earl+ middle A,e# it -a# far from bein, !lear t(at &ome-ill be able to #u#tain it# !laim to *rima!+ -it(in t(e C(ri#tian -orld/After Inno!ent *a##ed a-a+ t(e *rima!+ of t(e &ome -a# not8ue#tioned an+more until t(e %ut(eran reformation/ Inno!ent tried toenlar,e t(e territorial eten#ion of t(e Patrimonium Sancti Petri  in!entral Ital+/ '(e Pa*al Ftate# -ere t(e #e!ular e*re##ion of t(e*oliti!al *o-er of t(e *a*a!+ t(rou,( -(i!( t(e *o*e -a# inte,ratedin t(e feudal net-or) a# a %ord to (i# va##al#/ A !lo#e loo) to (i#(i#tori!al re!ord !annot !onrm t(at (e a#*ired #uzeraint+ over#e!ular ruler# a# a *o*e/ 6i# #uzeraint+ over #e!ular ruler# -a# al-a+#in !a#e# -(ere t(e+ *ut t(em#elve# under (i# *rote!tion #u!( a#Fi!il+ Ara,on 6un,ar+ or Jin, .o(n %a!)land of >n,land</ '(e+ o-ed(im fealt+ a# va##al# to a feudal lord but not be!au#e (e -a# t(e*o*e/ (at -a# !laimed b+ Inno!ent -a# t(at in !a#e of a !onKi!tamon, #e!ular ruler# and in order to *revent a #in (e -ould (ave t(eri,(t to intervene ratione peccati  be!au#e of #in</ Inno!ent tried to !urb !orru*tion in t(e !uria b+ e#tabli#(in, ed#um# for !leri!al #ervi!e# but (e )ne- t(at old (abit# are not li)el+ todie out/ Fome (i#torian# re,arded (i# !urial admini#tration a# anu!leu# of a modern #tate to !ome/ '(e+ -ere obviou#l+ im*re##edb+ t(e *revailin, !ulture of litera!+ in t(e !uria -it(in t(e -ide#*read,eneral illitera!+/ I rat(er follo- (ere t(e 7ud,ement of t(e Hriti#( *a,e L 2  (i#torian ?eoMre+ Harra!lou,( 2 : Inno!ent neit(er (ad enou,(nan!ial re#our!e# in order to em*lo+ #alaried !ler)# nor (ad an arm+of (i# o-n in order to !oer!e (i# *oliti!al -ill/ Inno!entN# *oliti!al fate-a# etremel+ fortunate/ '(i# #*ea)# for (i# *oliti!al in#tin!t anddi*lomati! #)ill/ 6e -a# e*loitin, in 119D t(e im*erial va!an!+ andbe!ame t(e -arden and t(e feudal %ord of t(e #mall  +ear# oldOrederi! -(o be!ame no- )in, of Fi!il+ after (i# fat(er >m*eror 6enr+I died/ At t(e  t(  %ateran !oun!il t(e #ame Orederi! -a# de#i,natedem*eror/ Inno!ent !onvened t(i# !oun!il be!au#e (e -anted to*romote t(e reform of t(e !(ur!( and to rene- t(e !ru#ade in orderto liberate t(e 6ol+ %and/ T&e 7 t&  Lateran council 121  '(e !oun!il -a# !onvo)ed in a *a*al bulla on 19 t(  A*ril 121G and -a#!onvened on t(e 11 t(  of =ovember 1215 *re!i#el+ D00 +ear# minu#t-o da+# (ere at t(e %ateran Pala!e/ Amon, it# (i,(Eran)in,*arti!i*ant# -ere B1 *atriar!(# 12 bi#(o*# and 900 abbot# and*rior#/ In addition man+ #e!ular ruler# #ent t(eir re*re#entative#/ It-a# t(e mo#t fre8uented a##embl+ in t(e middle A,e# over#(ado-in,an+ ot(er !(ur!( !oun!il until t(e r#t ati!an !oun!il in 1D39 G / '(eCoun!il of Ha#el (ad GG00 re,i#tered *arti!i*ant# but it# duration -a#almo#t 1D +ear#/ '(e main re#ult of t(e !oun!il -a# it# de!i#ion#-(i!( -ere *ubli#(ed in B0 !anon# re,ulatin, t(eolo,i!al ande!!le#ia#ti!al aMair# of t(e !(ur!(/ urin, (i# tenure (o-ever t(e!ru#ade -a# aimed al#o a,ain#t non – 4u#lim# #u!( a# a,ain#t t(eAlbi,en#ian# in #out(ern Oran!e/ Hut before d-ellin, on Inno!ent#attitude to-ard# .e-# it i# im*ortant to under#tand t(e relation# -it( .e-# before Inno!ent III a# e*re##ed in t(e *a*al bulla Sicut judaeis / Sicut iudaeis  and t&e rotection o* ,e+s in t&e Middle Ages  '(e *a*al bull Sicut judaeis -a# i##ued for t(e r#t time b+ *o*eCalit II 1119E 112</ It i# !on#idered a# a do!ument -(i!( ,ranted*rote!tion to .e-#/ A!tuall+ it i# a do!ument -(i!( *re#erved a #tatu#8uo in attitude# to-ard# .e-# on a lo-er level t(an t(eir ori,inal le,al#tatu# durin, t(e late &oman >m*ire/ '(e *ro!e## of !on#tantdeterioration -a# due to t(e emer,en!e of C(ri#tianit+ a# t(e o!ialreli,ion  / A #ome-(at benevolent attitude emer,ed from a !ir!ular 2/ ?eoMre+ Harra!lou,( , The edieval Papac!   %ondon 193D */ 115E 113/ G / erner 4ale!ze) Qer 4ittel*un)t >uro*a# im frR(en 1G/ .a(r(undert/ C(roni#ten ORr#ten und Hi#!(Sfe an die Jurie zur Teit Pa*#t Inno!enzU III/V in: ömische #istorische itteilungen  9200B< D9E 15BW (ier: 9G/*a,e L G  letter in 103G #ent b+ Po*e Aleander II 1031E 10BG< to bi#(o*# inF*ain 5 / 6ere are #ome (i,(li,(t#: V $ou have protected the %ews who live among !ou, that the! shouldnot &e destro!ed &! those who went against the Saracens in Spain'(nspired &! stupid ignorance or perhaps out o) &lind cupidit!, the! wanted to kill them in their rage, though divine piet! might have predestined them to salvation* )or since the loss o) their )reedom and)atherland the! live dispersed in all parts o) the world, condemned tolasting penance )or the crime o) their )athers in the e+usion o) theSaviours &lood' There is a di+erence &etween the case o) the %ewsand that o) the Saracens' (t is just to -ght those who persecuteChristians, while these people .%ews/ are read! to live in servitude'0  In #*ite of *a*al admonition !ru#ader# !ommitted #evere atro!itie#to-ard .e-i#( !ommunitie# on t(eir -a+ to t(e r#t !ru#ade/ '(e tetof t(e ori,inal Sicut %udaeis  i# *re#erved in a bulla of Aleander III1159 E 11D1< from 11B9/ 6ere are t(e main *oint#: ,rantin, *a*al*rote!tion no !om*ul#or+ ba*ti#m *ro(ibition to )ill or (urt .e-#-it(out trial or to ta)e t(eir mone+ or *ro*ert+/ =o one #(ould di#turbt(eir !ult or !oer!e t(em into #laver+/ (oever infrin,e# t(i# de!ree-ould lo#e (i# *o#ition and retinue or ma+ be e!ommuni!atedunle## (e a*olo,i#e# and !orre!t# (i# tran#,re##ion 3 / '(e *enal !lau#efor C(ri#tian# -(o (armed .e-# -a# rat(er -ea)/ '(i# tet be!amet(e #tandard tet for *rote!tin, .e-# to be re*eated b+ almo#t all*o*e# in t(e 4iddle A,e# t(rou,(out t(e 1G t(  and 1 t(  !entur+ on t(eo!!a#ion of t(e inau,uration *ro!e##ion on t(eir -a+ to ta)e*o##e##ion of t(eir t(rone in Fan ?iovanni in %ateran/ '(i# tetbe!ame rituali#ed routine -(i!( devalued #ome(o- it# !ontent/ In#ome letter# of Inno!ent -e are -itne##in, ,reater (o#tilit+ to-ard# .e-#/ Innocent III and t&e ,e+s in &is letters Inno!ent t(reatened in 1205 to e!ommuni!ate t(e Count of =ever# if (e !ontinue# to *rote!t t(e .e-#/ 6ere are #ome (i,(li,(t# from (i#letter B : V The %ews, like the )ratricide Cain, are doomed to wander through theearth as )ugitives and vaga&onds, and their )aces must &e covered  / Amnon %inder The %ews in the legal sources o) the earl! middle ages  etroitE .eru#alem 199B **/ GGE/ 5  / %inder o*/ !it/ 52E5G '   3 / %atin ver#ion in ansi, %oannes ominicus' Sacrorum consiliorum nova, et amplissima collectio 22 34enetiis5 6ntonium 7atta, 1889:, cols' ;<<)' *a,e L   with shame' The! are under no circumstances to &e protected &ut are, to &e condemned to ser)dom' (t is discredita&le )or Christian princes to receive %ews into their towns and villages, and to emplo! them as usurers in order to e=tort mone! )rom Christians' The princesarrest Christians who are inde&ted to %ews, and %ews are takingChristian castles and villages in pledge* the Church in this manner loses its tithes' >rapes are pressed &! %ews according to %ewishreligious precepts' (t is a still greater sin that this wine should &e usedin the Church )or the sacrament o) the Lord?s Supper0'   Helievin, t(at t(e #*read of t(e (ereti!al #e!t# in #out(ern Oran!e-a# due to .e-i#( inKuen!e Inno!ent aimed to (umiliate t(e .e-# #ot(at C(ri#tian# #(ould #(rin) from a##o!iatin, -it( t(em/ Hut t(ereare #imilar letter#/ In (i# letter to t(e Jin, of Oran!e P(ili**e IIAu,u#tu# from t(e #ame +ear Inno!ent III referred to rumor# about a*oor C(ri#tian #tudent -(o#e !or*#e -a# found dead in a latrine at a .e-i#( (ome D / 6e in!luded t(i# #tor+ in order to in#inuate (o-dan,erou# it mi,(t be for C(ri#tian# to be (o#ted b+ blood t(ir#t+ .e-#-it(in (i# eMort to i#olate t(e .e-# from t(e #o!iet+/ 6e #tre##ed (o- .e-# are in#ultin, C(ri#tian# b+ mo!)in, t(e !ru!ied .e#u# anattitude -(i!( ei#ted indeed a# bot( #ide# -ere dee*l+ en,a,ed in*olemi!# a,ain#t ea!( ot(er/ Inno!ent -a# one of t(e fe- *o*e# -(otoo) t(e !ommon a!!u#ation of ritual murder a# a fa!t -(erea# mo#tof t(e *o*e# !ondemned #u!( rumor# )no-in, -(i!( violent -ave#a,ain#t .e-# mi,(t be !au#ed b+ t(em/ 6e re*rimanded t(e Oren!()in, for allo-in, t(e .e-# to *o##e## landed *ro*ert+ and em*lo+C(ri#tian #ervant# and nur#e#/ it( t(i# (o#tile #*irit to-ard# .e-#t(e !anon# of t(e  t(  %ateran !oun!il -ere drafted b+ Inno!ent andal#o a!!e*ted b+ it# *arti!i*ant#/ 7 t&  Lateran council and t&e ,e+s Amon, t(e B0 !anon# t(ere are  !on!ernin, .e-#/ '(e+ are t(e la#t!anon# from =o/ 3B to B0/ In Canon #8  t(e .e-# #(ould be !om*elledto *a+ tit(e# and oMerin,# of !(ur!(e# -(i!( t(e C(ri#tian# #u**liedbefore t(eir *ro*ert+ -a# lo#t to .e-# 9 / In Canon #(  t(e .e-# and B / >/ Haluze >*itolarum Inno!enti III/ &omani *onti!u# libri unde!im Pari# 13D2 ol/ 2 */ 12G/ 'ran#lation a# 8uoted b+ ---/7e-i#(en!+!lo*edia/!omarti!le#D119Einno!entEiiiElot(arioE!onti/D / Fee : %oui# ?eor,e# HrY8ui,n+ iplomata, Chartae, epistolae et alia documenta ad res )rancias etc Z 'omu# 2: 2 Pari# 1B91 **/311/ 9 / 'et:  The more the Christians are restrained )rom the practice o) usur!, the more are the! oppressed in this matter &! the treacher! o) the %ews, so that in a short time the! e=haust the resources o) the Christians' @ishing, there)ore, in this matter to protect the Christians against cruel oppression *a,e L 5
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