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History of Parliament

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  HISTORY OF PARLIAMENT    ANGLO-SAXON TIMES-  Origin of the British Parliament 2 FEATURES OF ANGLO-SAXON GOVERNMENT  * WITANS - the wise men -used to be called to advise the King * Moot -regular meetings for the ordeal of cases affecting their community    William the Conqueror- the first Norman King of England    Magnum Concilium - also known as the great council -composed of the larger groups of nobles, archbishops. Bishops and abbots, earls,thegns and knights.    System of land Tenure - instituted by William the Conqueror -first loyalty of every landholder was to the king and not to the local Lord.    Henry II - Great grandson of William the Conqueror -his reign followed a period of anarchy and marked the great advance in English Government.    John-  the governmental authority that was established became limited in his time -his leadership marked the early limitations in royal authority. -restraint on political authority that give essence on constitutionalism.    Magna Charta - Great Charter -the 1 st  document being put into writing stating the principle that the king and his government is not above the law and that government abuses may be resisted.    Edward I - model parliament ( where the representation of 2 knights from each country and 2 burgesses from each town became normal in each parliament. *3 ESTATES OF PARLIAMENT >NOBILITY >CLERGY >COMMONERS      14 TH  CENTURY - system of two chambers in parliament took place -(house of commons and house of Lords)    15 th  century-  it is when the system that the proposal for grants of money should srcinate in the house of commons and wins the approval of the Lords took place and that the parliament acquired legislative powers.    Wars of Roses- struggles between the factions of the nobility    Tudor Dynasty- a line of energetic monarchs who gave the country the firm and orderly government it wanted. *FIVE MONARCHS UNDER TUDOR DYNASTY >HENRY VII -ultimate victor in the Wars of roses -parliament in his time was a servant of the king rather than an independent force   -the real center of governmental activities is PRIVY COUNCIL ( a group of advisers chosen by the king who came from middle classes) > HENRY VIII- Reformation of parliament (asserted supreme authority or sovereignty of parliament in making statute and made way in passing the legislation completing the breach of the Church of Rome and making the king the supreme head of the Church of England. >EDWARD VI >MARY I >ELIZABETH I -reestablished the Anglican church of her father -her government was firm and orderly and commanded the overwhelming support of public opinion -House of commons took pride in their growing political influence *PETER WENTWORTH- member of Elizabeth’s Parliament  -the indicator of the importance of the House of Commons    JAMES I - believed in the absolute power of monarchy -ruled without parliament    CHARLES I - dissolved his first 2 parliaments in rapid succession and resorted to highly unpopular forced loans in the absence of financial grants from parliament.    CIVIL WAR-  reflected the social, political and religious cleavage    OLIVER CROMWELL-  the leader of the victorious armies after the civil war -assumed the title Lord Protector    CHARLES II -Restored Monarchy -accepted the supremacy of Parliament    BILL OF RIGHTS OF 1689-  assured the legislative authority of parliament and forbids the king to levy tax without parliament’s consent and certain individual liberties were specifically confirmed.    ACT OF SETTLEMENT -established the authority of the parliament over the crown -changed the order of succession to the throne    ROBERT WARLPOLE - first Lord of Treasury and chancellor of the exchequer -first british prime minister
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