Health & Medicine

Industrial and organizational psychology

1. Industrial and Organizational Psychology Michael B. Gladson, MD 2. What is I/O Psychology?  The branch of psychology concerned with the application of psychological…
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  • 1. Industrial and Organizational Psychology Michael B. Gladson, MD
  • 2. What is I/O Psychology?  The branch of psychology concerned with the application of psychological principles in the workplace  Second only to clinical psychology in the number of practitioners  Found in four sectors of the economy: industry, universities, government, and consulting firms
  • 3. Differences in I/O and other psychology fields  Differs in the settings where it is practiced  Differs in content  Differs in approach  Does not differ in its reliance on the scientific method for its theories and research
  • 4. Settings  Practiced in work settings  Makes use of findings of other branches of psychology:  Human motivation  Attitude formation  Psychology of groups (team performance, leadership dynamics)  Psychophysiology (job stress)  Theories of adjustment (job loss)  Intelligence testing applied to develop tests that might assist in hiring decisions
  • 5. Content  Three primary areas of interest:  Personnel psychology  Organizational psychology  Human factors (or human engineering) psychology
  • 6. A Systems Approach  Changes in one facet of I/O psychology usually affects the other facets  Example – changes in the design of a task so that it is more complex (human factors activity) may have substantial impact on worker satisfaction (organizational topic) or who might do best at that task (personnel topic)
  • 7. A Brief History  Personnel Psychology was the first of the three I/O subfields to appear  Intelligence testing used in WW I to identify recruits with greatest likelihood to become successful officers  Adapted by industry following the war
  • 8. Organizational Psychology History  Money was thought to be the only motivator in the early 20th century  Job satisfaction was of little interest to employers  Intelligence was something to be avoided in workers
  • 9. Organizational Psychology History  Research team led by Mayo (1930) discovered that employees’ attitudes toward supervisors and company had substantial effects on productivity regardless of pay level  This launched the human relations movement, which gave birth to interest in job satisfaction, work motivation, and leadership
  • 10. Human Factors Psychology History  Began with WW II when aircraft had become much more complex and there were more accidents than ever before (cockpit instrument array not standardized)  Airplane cockpits thus began to be designed with standardization of location of controls & instruments in the cockpit to decrease human error  Human factors psychology was born out of this need to design the best & safest combination of human & machine
  • 11. In the next slides we will consider each of the three facets of I/O psychology in greater detail
  • 12. Personnel Psychology  Selecting correct persons for the job  I/O psychologist would go about the selection process for any job in the same way  First step – determining the most important duties of the job in question  Second step – list human attributes (skills, abilities, knowledge, experience, and personality characteristics) that will be necessary for success  Third step – develop a way to measure those attributes in applicants  Final step – deciding who will get the job based on results of those assessments
  • 13. First Step - Job Analysis  A method for breaking a job into its constituent parts – which parts are the most important?  Then determine the knowledge, skills, abilities, or other personal characteristics necessary for successful completion of the job’s central tasks  When these key attributes have been identified, then an appropriate test can be selected or developed.
  • 14. Second Step – Test Administration and Interviewing  Standardized tests used extensively  In recent years, personality testing has attracted increased interest as a means to enhance the hiring process – a result of the appearance of standardized tests to measure the Big Five personality traits  Integrity tests – measure trustworthiness but may not be as valid  Credit checks – may be considered intrusive by some employers
  • 15. Test Administration and Interviewing  Personnel psychologist must verify that the tests used to select the best job candidates are successful in doing so  Involves statistical correlation of test scores with performance measures if the latter are available  This process is known as validation
  • 16. Interviewing  Two types – structured and unstructured  Structured interviews more like standardized tests  same questions asked of all candidates and are based on attributes necessary for success on the job in question  Have clear guidelines for evaluation of answers  Can give information not otherwise tested, such as oral comprehension, listening skills, and motivation
  • 17. Interviewing  Unstructured interviews  Nonstandard questions with no clear right or wrong answers  No method of assigning a score to an applicant  Many employers rely heavily on this type of interview but research suggests it is highly suggestive and far from optimal
  • 18. Equal Opportunity Employment and Testing  Mental ability tests have been portrayed as instruments of discrimination as minorities often score lower  Physical ability tests may discriminate against women, older persons, and persons with disabilities  The EEOC in the US wants to ensure that all testing is fair to all applicants, regardless of race, religion, gender, disability, or age.
  • 19. Equal Opportunity Employment  This simple goal has led to a complex tangle of legal, administrative, and philosophical disputes  Hiring quotas were in effect until 1991; since then many companies have continued to try to diversify their workforce  Much of the debate is about whether tests used in hiring are valid  When tests focus on several important attributes it is likely that ethnic minority applicants do better
  • 20. New Trends and Challenges  Training and education  Performance assessment of current employees  Hiring airport screeners by DHS an important part of work of DHS I/O psychologist that has implications on national security
  • 21. Organizational Psychology  Interest is in how organizational factors influence workers’ social and emotional functioning  Also interested in work motivation, job satisfaction, teams, leadership, and organizational culture
  • 22. Work Motivation  Why do some workers work hard and others appear lazy and uncooperative?  Herzberg’s job enrichment theory – increasing motivation can be accomplished by enriching the job and giving worker more responsibilities and challenges  Skinner’s reinforcement theory – jobs acquire interest only through their association with extrinsic or external rewards
  • 23. Work Motivation  Each theory has some value, but neither applies all the time  Expectancy theory – proposes people act on a prediction of what rewards they will receive  Self-efficacy theory – individuals gradually develop confidence (or lack of it) about abilities to overcome obstacles and successfully complete difficult tasks. Confidence can be enhanced or diminished by actual work experiences
  • 24. Work Motivation  Self-regulation theory  Involves making and executing plans, initiating and inhibiting behaviors, taking responsibility, and exhibiting self-discipline  Important in “fitting in” with colleagues
  • 25. Work Motivation  Goal-setting theory  Proposes best way to increase effort is to set specific, challenging goals for a worker  Same principle as in athletic training  Even if goal not met, performance better than if you had not set specific goals
  • 26. Job Satisfaction  More research on this than almost any subject in I/O psychology and have led to basic findings about job satisfaction are:  Interesting and challenging work  Pleasant co-workers  Adequate pay and other financial benefits  Opportunities for advancement  Effective and supportive supervisors  Acceptable company policies
  • 27. Job Satisfaction  The absence of factors previously listed leads to job dissatisfaction  Job dissatisfaction related to increased absenteeism, sick leave, and employee turnover  Job dissatisfaction can cause physical and psychological damage  Employers job is to remove obstacles to success
  • 28. Work Teams  A result of downsizing in 1980s – unusual in US before that  Teams have effect of increasing accountability and ownership at lower levels of organization  Virtual teams – came about with advent of internet  Can have problems with time zones, inadequate face-toface contact, and excessive reliance on technology
  • 29. Leadership  Transformational leadership  Charismatic leadership  Emancipatory leadership  Emotional intelligence in leaders is important – the ability to understand and manage moods in oneself and others
  • 30. Organizational Culture and Climate  Every organization has a personality, or “culture”  Climate consists of shared perceptions among workers about specific aspects of the workplace environment  I/O psychologists are primarily interested in how employees experience organizational culture and climate
  • 31. Balancing Work and Other Spheres of Life  Research in this area focuses on the design and evaluation of programs intended to reduce stress at work  Time off from work, extent of non-work related hassles, and level of non-work stress found to be significant correlates of subsequent work-week performance as well as of employee health
  • 32. Human Factors Psychology  Human factors specialists seek to understand the human-machine relationship in various environments  Design work environments and control panels for equipment in ways to reduce mistakes and decrease work stress  Robotics in the worksite is one newer challenge for human factors specialists; also distance education
  • 33. Systems Approach to Work Safety  Workplace safety can serve as an example of the interrelation among personnel psychology, organizational psychology, and human factors psychology  Consider the problem of pizza delivery drivers who have excessive accidents when trying to deliver pizzas in under 30 minutes
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    Aug 10, 2017
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