Documents

Molecular Symmetry and Group Theory - Carter

Description
ACQUISITIONS EDITOR MARKETI G MANAGER PRODUCTION EDITOR DESIGNER ILLUSTRATION EDITOR COVER DESIGN NEDAH ROSE KIMBERLY MANZI DEBORAH HERBERT A N MARIE RENZI EDWARD STARR DAVID LEVY This book is printed on acid-free paper. @ Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written, it is a poliey of J ohn Wiley & Sons, Ine. to have books of enduring value published in the United States printed on acid-free paper, and we exert our best efforts to that
Categories
Published
of 155
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Share
Transcript
  ACQUISITIONSEDITOR MARKETIGMANAGER PRODUCTIONEDITOR DESIGNER ILLUSTRATIONEDITOR COVERDESIGN NEDAHROSE KIMBERLYMANZI DEBORAHHERBERT A NMARIERENZI EDWARDSTARR DAVIDLEVY Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaper. @ Recognizingtheimportanceofpreservingwhathasbeenwritten,itisapolieyofJohnWiley & Sons,Ine.tohavebooksofenduringvaluepublishedintheUnitedStatesprintedonacid-free paper,andweexertourbesteffortstothatend. Thepaperinthisbookwasrnanufacturedbyamillwhoseforestmanagementprograrnsinclude sustainedyieldharvestingofitstimberlands.Sustainedyieldharvestingprineiplesensurethatthe nurnbersoftreeseuteachyeardoesnotexceedtheamountofnewgrowth. Copyright © 1998JohnWiley & Sons,Ine.Alirightsreserved. Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmitted inanyforrnorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photoeopying,reeording,scanning orotherwise,exceptaspermittedunderSections107or108ofthe1976UnitedStates CopyrightAct,withouteitherthepriorwrittenpermissionofthe Publisher, orauthcrizationthroughpaymentoftheappropriateper-copyfeetotheCopyright ClearaneeCenter,222RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MA01923,(978)750-8400,fax (978)750-4470.RequeststothePublisherforperrnissionshouldbeaddressedtothe PermissionsDepartment,JohnWiley & Sons,Ine.,I11RiverStreet,Hoboken,Nl07030, (20I)748-60Il,fax(20 I) 748-6008,E-Mail:PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. Toorderbooksorforcustornerserviceplease,cali l 800)-CALL-WILEY(225-5945). Library01CongressCataloging-in-PublicationData Carter,RobertL.,1944- Molecularsymmetryandgrouptheory/RobertL.Carter. p. cm.Includesindex. ISBN0-471-14955-1(paper:alk.paper) l. Moleculartheory.2.Symmetry(Physies)3.Grouptheory. I.Title. QD461.C321997 541.2'2'015122-dc2197-25445 CIP109876 ã   Formystudents- Past,present, andfuture  PREFACE Formorethan 2S years,Ihavetaughtthejunior-senioradvancedinorganic chernistrycourseandhaveintroducedsymmetryandgrouptheoryastools forstudyingbondingandspectroscopy.Formostofthisperiodtherewereno treatmentsofgrouptheoryinthestandardinorganictexts,andmystudents wereforcedtorelymainlyonthelecturematerial,occasionallysupplemented witharudimentaryself-teachingtext.Inthe1980s,inorganictextsthatin- cludedgrouptheorybegantoappear,butinverylimitednumber.Insome casesthetextasawholewasnotsuitableforthelevelororganizationofmy course,whileinothersthetreatmentofgrouptheorywasnecessarilysobrief astobeoflittlehelptomoststudents.Thesefrustrations,whichshouldbe familiartomostprofessorsofinorganicchemistry,compelledmein1989to begintowriteatextthatwouldsuittheneedsofmycourseandmostespe- ciallymystudents.Overthepasteightyearsandsevenofferingsofthecourse, thatoriginaiideahasgrownthroughasuccessionofdraftsintothepresent book.Intheprocess,themanuscriptdevelopedbeyondbeingasimplesup- plementtoexistinginorganicchemistrytexts(althoughthatneedpersists)to becomeabookthatcanalsoservetheneedsofastand-aloneintroductory courseongrouptheoryattheadvancedundergraduateorlowergraduatelev- els.Althoughithasevolvedbeyondthelimitsofitsinitialintent,thisbook retainstheoriginaipurposethatmotivatedmywritingit=-toprovidestudents withathoroughbutunderstandableintroductiontomolecularsymmetryand grouptheoryasappliedtochemicalproblems. Inkeepingwiththisgoal,Ihavetriedtowriteinastylethatinvitesthe readertodiscoverbyexampiethepowerofsymmetryargumentsforunder- standingotherwiseintimidatingtheoreticalproblemsinchemistry.Tothis end,thetextemphasizesthemeaningandchemicalsignificanceofthemath- ematicsofgrouptheory,ratherthanrigorousderivation.Callinguponmy ownrememberedexperiencesinlearningthismaterialanduponmyexperi- enceinteachingitformanyyears,Ihavetriedtoanticipatethosequestions andtroublesomepointsstudentstypicallyhavewiththesubject.Asapracti- calmatter,thisbookshowsveryexplicitlysomeofthemosteffectivetech- niquesforapplyinggrouptheorytochemicalproblems.Someofthese(e.g., thetabularmethodofreducingrepresentations,theuseofgroup-subgroup relationshipsfordealingwithinfinite-ordergroups)areknowntomanysea- sonedpractitionersbuthavesomehowescapedpresentationinothertexts. Othertechniquesandmethodsofapproachareuniquelymyown.Inaddition tofundamentalsoftheoryandapplication,lhavetriedtoshowhowgroup theoryhascontributedandcontinuestocontributetoourtheoreticalunder- standingofstructureandbonding.Itismybeliefthatstudentsgainagreater vii a  appreciationforanytheoreticaltopicwhenitisshownhowandwhenthe ideasevolved.IwouldhopethatstudentswiUrealizefromthisthatsyrnme- tryandgrouptheoryconsiderationsarenotperipheraltothetheoryofstruc- tureandbondingbutratherarecentraitoacompleteunderstanding. Whenteachingagraduatelevelcourseingrouptheory,Icoveralltopics inthistext,atleastinthedepthpresentedandessentiallyintheorderofthe chapters.Whenteachingthejunior-senioradvancedinorganicchemistry course,owingtotheconstraintsoftimeandlevel,thecoverageismorese- lectiveinbothrangeanddepth.Forthispurpose,IcustomarilycoveralIof thematerialinChapterslthrough4.However,sincethisismoststudents' firstencounterwithsymmetryandgrouptheory,Idonotthinkitnecessary tointroducethemoreadvancedtopicofprojectionoperators,thesubjectof Chapter5.Therefore,Iroutinelyskipthismaterialatthisleve .Inkeeping withthis,Ihavewrittenthesucceedingchaptersinthistextsoasnottode- penduponknowledgeofprojectionoperators.Fortheundergraduatecourse, Idocovertheliseofgrouptheoryfordeducingspectroscopicselectionrules forinfraredandRamanactivity(Chapter6)butdonotgointothedepthof coverageonovertones,combinations,andotherspectroscopiccomplications presentedinSection6.5.Likewise,withtransitionmetalcomplexesIcoverali thetopicsinChapter7butglossoverthedetailsofsplittingoftermsandthe developmentofcorrelationdiagrams(Sections7.4and7.5),concentrating moreontheuseofTanabe-SuganoandOrgeldiagramsfarinterpretingab- sorptionspectra(Section7.6).Beyondtheconfinesofanycourse,thisbook shouldservetheneedsofadvancedundergraduatestudents,graduatestu- dents,andprofessionalchemistsseekingtolearnorreviewsymmetryand grouptheoryontheirown.Forthispurpose,beyondChapterslthrough4, readersshouldfeelfreetodelveintothetopicsoftheremainingchaptersas theirinterestsandneedsdictate. Manyindividualshavecontributedtomakingthisabetterbookthanit wouldhavebeenwithouttheirconstructivecriticisms.Firstandforemost,I ammostappreciativeofthemanystudentswhousedearliereditionsofthis materialinmycoursesandbeyond,particularlythosewhowereforthcoming intheircomments.Whileitisnicetoreceivecompliments,ImustconfessI moregreatlyvaluedyourcallingtomyattentionpointsofconfusionandin- cidentsoferrorsintheearlierversionsofthetext.Likewise,Iamindebted tothemanyreviewerssolicitedbyJohnWiley & Sonswhoofferedconstruc- tivecritiquesofthemanuscriptatvariousstagesofdevelopment.WhileI havenotincorporatedeveryoneoftheirsuggestions(whichattimesweredi- vergent),Ihavegladlyacceptedeveryideathatseemedtofurtherthegoals ofthetext,consistentwithmygeneraiapproach.Iamespeciallygratefulto mycolleagueProfessarLeverett J. Zompafarmanyusefuldiscussionsand hiscriticaireviewofChapter7.Finally,Iwouldberemissnottoacknowledge themuchappreciatedsupportandpatienceofGregCloutierthroughoutthe courseofthisproject. CONTENTS CHAPTER1 FundamentalConcepts 1 1.1SymmetryOperationsandElementsl 1.2DefiningtheCoordinateSystem12 1.3CombiningSymmetryOperations14 1.4SymmetryPointGroups18 1.5PointGroupsofMolecules21 1.6SystematicPointGroupClassification28 1.7OpticalActivityandSymmetry33 Problems35 CHAPTER2 RepresentationsofGroups 4 2.1IrreducibleRepresentations40 2.2UnitVectorTransformations43 2.3ReducibleRepresentations46 2.4MoreComplexGroupsandStandardCharacterTables52 2.5GeneralRelationshipsofIrreducibleRepresentations61 Problems64 CHAPTER3 TechniquesandRelationships forChemicalApplications 3.1SystematicReductionofReducibleRepresentation66 3.2HandlingRepresentationswithImaginaryCharacters70 3.3Group=SubgroupRelationships:DescentandAscent inSymmetry 73 3.4ReducingRepresentationsofGroupswithInfiniteOrder79 3.5MoreAboutDirectProducts.81 Problems84 CHAPTER4 SymmetryandChemicalBonding RobertL.Carter 4.1OrbitalSymmetriesandOverlap88 4.2ValenceBondTheoryandHybridOrbitals94 4.3LocalizedandDelocalizedMolecularOrbitals104 4.4MX II MoleculeswithPi-Bonding]]7 4.5Pi-BondinginAromaticRingSystems126 Problems132 viii ã
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks
SAVE OUR EARTH

We need your sign to support Project to invent "SMART AND CONTROLLABLE REFLECTIVE BALLOONS" to cover the Sun and Save Our Earth.

More details...

Sign Now!

We are very appreciated for your Prompt Action!

x