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Politics of Islamic Jihad

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Politics of Islamic Jihad
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    Politics of Islamic Jihad        A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Political Science at the University of Canterbury    ______________________________________ University of Canterbury 2008    CONTENTS Abstract ……………………………………………………………………... v  Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………. vii  Chapter 1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………... 1   1.1   Islamic Jihad: What Is It?   …………………………………………………   1   1.2   Islam: Politics of Religion   ………………………………………………...   7   1.3   Literature Review   …………………………………………………………   15   1.3.1.a. Theoretical and Philosophical Concept of Jihad: Islamic School of Thought ……………………………………. 16 1.3.1.b. Application of Jihad: Islamic View …………………………………... 20 1.3.1.c. Jihad: Reformist View ………………………………………………... 21 1.3.2.a. Western Political View of Jihad: Twentieth Century and After 9/11 …………………………………………………..22 1.3.2.b. Western Philosophical View of Jihad: Before 9/11 ……………………………………………………………... 25 1.3.3 Western View: Jihad as Terrorism ……………………………………….27 Chapter 2 Framework for Understanding: Theoretical Concept of Jihad in Islam ………………………………………. 36 2.1 Definition and Evolution of Jihad in Islam. ………………………………...36 2.2 Historical Meaning of Jihad ………………………………………………...37   ii 2.3 Jihad: References from the Qur’an ………………………………………… 39 2.4 Jihad: References from the Hadiths ………………………………………... 42 2.5 Jihad in Islamic Scholarship …………………………………………………44 Chapter 3 Islamic Jihad: Historical Approach ……………………………………... 54   3.1 Rise of Islam: Early Era …………………………………………………….. 54 3.2 Role of War in Pre-Islamic Arabian Society ……………………………………………………………………… 56 3.3 The Qur’an: Constitution of Jihad ………………………………………….. 58  Chapter 4 Case Study: Hamas and Politics of Jihad ………………………………. 67   4.1 Hamas: A Synthesis of Religion and Nationalism …………………………. 67   4.2 The Origin of Hamas ……………………………………………………….. 71 4.3 The Charter of Allah: A Brief Analysis ……………………………………. 73 4.4 Foreign Policy of Hamas: Politics of Jihad and Realpolitik ………………………………………………………………….. 80 4.5 Hamas’ Post- Election Strategy ……………………………………………. 88 Chapter 5 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………… 94 Appendices …………………………………………………………………….. 108 Bibliography …………………………………………………………………… 118   iii List of Tables and Figures Tables Page 1. 1.1 Typology of Islamic Fundamentalist Organizations ……………………….. 10  2.  2.1 Sanctions for Jihad in the Qur’an ................................................................... 41 3. 2.2 Prescriptions of Jihad by the Hadiths ……………………………………… 42 4. 3.1 Evolution of Islamic Jihad or Transitional form of Jihad ……………………………………………………….63 5. 4.1 Typology of Nationalism: Characteristics of Hamas ………………………..69 6. 4.2   Typology of    Nationalism and Jihad ………………………………………....76 7. 4.3 Financial Aid to Hamas (2003) ……………………………………………...84 8. 4.4 Palestinian Authority (PA) Elections 2006 .………………………………....85 Figures 1.  Jihadist Wheel …………………………………………………………………… 2 2. Conceptual Framework of the Qur’anic Pattern of Jihad ……………………….. 5 3. Conceptual Framework: Jihad and Conflict …………………………………….. 8 4. Conceptual Framework of the Political Pattern of Jihad ………………………. 12 5. Interactive Circles of Palestinian Problem …………………………………….. 77 6. Hamas Funding ………………………………………………………………… 83 Photo 1.  A Shipment of Arms …………………………………………………………… 82  
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