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  Tempered Glass is safety glass processed by thermal or chemical treatment. It is four times stronger than normal annealed glass. It is called safety glass because when it breaks, it shatters into small pieces that have much lower risk of injury. Tempered Glass has much higher tensile or bending strength and better thermal shock resistance. It can withstand temperature changes of up to 200 Degree Celsius without breaking. WHAT IS TEMPERING Tempering is a process through which stress is developed in glass to increase the mechanical strength four times than that of annealed glass. The stress distribution created is such that the outer surface is under compression and the core is under tension. The compression on the outer surface gives glass the strength and the tension at the core gives it the property of shattering into small pieces when the glass fails and a breakage happens. TYPES OF TEMPERING There are two types of Tempering: THERMAL TOUGHENING    Horizontal Glass Flow    Chemical Glass Flow Thermal toughening is achieved based on the density difference between surface and midplate. CHEMICAL TOUGHENING Chemical toughening is done similar to electroplating. It involves dipping the glass in salt bath in 400 Degree Celsius for 12 to 36 hours. It is not suitable for mass production. Annealed Glass is glass that has not undergone any treatment process like toughening, lamination or heat strengthening. Also known as 'normal' glass, it is most commonly used for residential windows. It is brittle and very strong in compression. The use of annealed glass is limited owing to its low toughness, low tensile strength and low thermal shock resistance. Sudden change in temperature can cause the glass to break. When annealed glass breaks, it forms sharp, knife-like fragments. Annealed Glass has minimal residual stress and the stress is uniformly distributed.  Ceramic fritted glass is a decorative glass that has glass enamel fused into the glass surface. For the manufacturing of a ceramic frit glass, Ceramic frit is applied to the glass through a fine mesh screen with glass enamel before the glass is tempered or heat strengthened. On tempering or heat strengthening, the glass enamel fuses with the glass surface and becomes a permanent coating which cannot be damaged or removed by cleaning, scrubbing etc. Characteristics of Ceramic Printed Glass:  Ceramic frit design and percentage coverage affects the light transmission & solar heat gain of glass. Light frit colors and certain pattern designs can cause enhanced brightness when viewed from indoors under certain daylight and background sky conditions, while dark frit colors will tend to reduce glare. Benefits of Ceramic Printed Glass  Combining silk-screened glass with clear, tinted, Low-E, or reflective glass, can control light transmittance, reduce solar heat gain and enhance aesthetic & performance characteristics. Applications of Ceramic Printed Glass  Silk-screened glass can be specified for both exterior and interior applications. When used on building exteriors, the painted surface must be  protected from direct contact with the environment and is normally found in an insulating glass unit. Major applications include semi -transparent and translucent silk-screened glass for interior applications, including glass doors, partitions, handrails, glass ceilings, bathrooms, elevator walls and shower enclosures. Ceramic frit glass can be used in curtain walls; point fixed or bolted glazing systems, shower installations, glass doors and partitions. The size, density and color would determine the opacity and shading whereas the  variety of dots, squares, checks and patterns will give many design combinations to achieve the desired effect. Saint- Gobain Infinity’s range of solar control glasses allow optimum daylight to pass through but cuts radiation and reflects heat. Infinity range of glasses have special coating that provides superior UV protection while ensuring indoor temperatures rema When solar radiation strikes glass, it is partly reflected, partly absorbed in the thickness of the glass and partly transmitted. The ratio of each of these 3 parts to the incident solar radiation defines the reflectance factor, the absorptance factor and the transmittance factor of the glazing. Transmittance, Reflectance and Absorptance Factors  The transmittance, reflectance and absorptance factors are the ratios of the transmitted, reflected or absorbed radiant flux to the incident radiant flux. Solar control To help reduce overheating, the following steps can be taken:    Ensure adequate ventilation     Use low energy transmission glazing, known as solar control glass. This glass allows only a specified fraction of solar radiation energy to pass through, providing illumination but helping to prevent overheating. Solar control glazing There are three major considerations regarding solar control glazing:    The reduction of solar energy heat gain to achieve the lowest possible solar factor    The control of heat transfer from the outside to the interior by means of the lowest U-value possible    To achieve a good level of natural daylight through optimum light transmittance value possible Choosing Glass In tropical countries like India, we need to be careful in selecting the right glass. Nowadays, there are various types of glass solutions available. Selecting the right product is critical in maximizing the benefits possible from glass. The key performance concepts in designing a building envelope with glass are explained below:    Solar Factor also known as Solar Heat Gain Co-efficient    U-value    Relative Heat Gain Solar Factor Heat gain on the inside of the building due to direct solar radiation incident on glass is measured through the Solar Factor of glass. Solar Factor is the sum of the percentage of incident solar energy directly transmitted and incident solar energy absorbed and re-emitted inside. Solar factor = (b+e)/a U-value Heat gain due to temperature difference is expressed by the U-value of a glass. U-value is the amount of heat transferred (lost/gained) due to a temperature differential of 10C between inside and outside, per square meter.
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