The Language and Meaning of Flowers
 Most of us know that a dozen red roses means, "Be mine." But did you know, for example,that a primrose means, "I can't live without you," or that a purple hyacinth means, "Pleaseforgive me," or that a pink carnation means, "I'll never forget you," or that a gladiolus means,"Give me a break?"
 meanings have been used to convey ideas, feelings and messages for centuries.The word,
, has been coined for the assignment of meaning to flowers. There is ameaning to colors of flowers, to numbers of flowers, and to groups of flowers. It is a silentlanguage that has been largely lost to us through lack of use. In addition to the obvious choices of color and variety, the language of flowers also includesthe way flowers are worn or presented. Presenting flowers upright conveys a positivemeaning, but if they are presented upside down the meaning is the opposite. If a ribbon isincluded with the flowers and is tied to the left then the meaning of the flowers refers to thegiver, but if the ribbon is tied to the right then the meaning refers to the recipient. Also,flowers can be used to answer questions. When they are presented with the right hand theanswer is "yes," but when presented with the left hand the answer is "no."
 The Turks in the 17th century seemed to develop
 meanings. In 1718 the wife of theBritish ambassador to Constantinople, Lady Mary Wortley, wrote a letter expounding on the"Secret Language of Flowers" that she had discovered during her visits to Turkey. Europequickly picked up on the concept. In 1819 Louise Cortambert, under the pen name, Madame Charlotte de la Tour, wrote andpublished what seems to have been the first dictionary of the
 language entitled,
Le Language des Fleurs 
. It was a small book, but it became a popular reference on the subject. During the Victorian era, the reign of Queen Victoria from 1837 to 1901, the meaning andlanguage of flowers became increasingly popular. Victorian women especially picked up thesilent language that allowed them to communicate feelings and meanings that the strictpropriety of the times would not allow. Tussie-mussies, a bouquet of flowers wrapped with alace doily and tied with a satin ribbon became a popular and valued gift of the times. In 1884 a whole book on the subject and entitled,
The Language of Flowers 
, by Jean Marshand illustrated by Kate Greenaway, was published in London. It became popular andrespected and has been the standard source for Victorian
 meaning ever since.
Selected Flower Meanings
Here are some selected flowers and their meanings, a short dictionary. Almond flowers -- Hope Anemone -- Forsaken Aster -- Symbol of love Balm -- Sympathy Basil -- Best wishes Bay leaf -- "I change but in death" Bell
, white -- Gratitude Bergamot -- Irresistible Bluebell -- Constancy Borage -- Courage Broom -- Humility Campanula -- Gratitude Carnation, pink -- I'll never forget you Carnation, red -- My poor heart aches for you Carnation, striped -- Refusal China rose -- Beauty always new Chrysanthemum -- Love Clover, four leaved -- "Be mine" Coreopsis -- Love at first sight Cuckoo pint -- Ardor Daffodil -- Regard
 Daisy -- Innocence, new-born, "I share your sentiment" Fennel -- Flattery Fern -- Sincerity Forget-Me-Not -- True love Furze or Gorse -- Enduring affection French Marigold -- Jealousy Gardenia -- Ecstasy Gentian -- Loveliness Geranium -- "You are childish" Hare bell -- Grief Heartsease -- "I am always thinking of you" benih bunga lokal
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