Documents

Energy Thermodynamics Enzymes

Categories
Published
of 16
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Related Documents
Share
Description
Powerpoint Presentation on Energy Thermodynamics & Enzymes.
Transcript
  ! ## #$%&% ' ()*+,* ./0 2342 67/)+ /+/) )/069),/0 Metabolism/Energy Transformations *+ ,3/:*02)8; -380*,0 4+< /+5*+//)*+5 4.06 4--.8 26 =*6.658' Metabolism  > 4.. 6? 4+ 6)54+*0:@0 ,3/:*,4. )/4,2*6+0 > 4+ /:/)5/+2 -)6-/)28' Bioenergetics  > 23/ 029<8 6? 36A 6)54+*0:0 :4+45/ 23/*) /+/)58 )/069),/0 ' Metabolic pathway  > 4.2/)42*6+ 6? :6./,9./0 *+ 02/-0' Catabolic pathways  > =)/4B<6A+ 6? Chemical reactions in cells are organized into Metabolic Pathways      >  )/./40/ /+/)58 ' Anabolic pathways  > =9*.< ,6:-./C :6./,9./0  >  ,6+09:/ /+/)58 >  D+/)58 )/./40/< =8 ,424=6.*, -423A480<)*7/0 4+4=6.*, -423A480 E*59)/ FG# H)4+0?6):42*6+0 =/2A//+ potential  4+< kinetic  /+/)58 Proteins section (ribosomes, RNA)  ! ## #$%&# ! #$%& ($) *+,$-)(., * ,+ /.+# )$# *012#3( (, (4, /)4* ,+ (5#$-,6& )-.3* ã  75#$-,6& )-.3*8 study of energy transformationsã Fig. 8.3a     be transferred or transformed, but cannot be created or destroyed :5#-.3)/ # #$%& (e.g., food) is a form of potential energyin molecules because of the arrangement of atoms ! #$%& ($) *+,$-)(., * ,+ /.+# )$# *012#3( (, (4, /)4* ,+ (5#$-,6& )-.3* ;#3, 6 /)48 every energy transfer or transformation increases the disorder (entropy) of the universe  –  ! ($,<&8 a measure of disorder, or randomness ãThe more random a collection of matter, the greater its entropy  –Much of the increased entropy of the universe takes the form of increasing heat ãHeat (random molecular motion) is energy in its most random state Fig. 8.3b Order as a characteristic of life ' I6 .*7*+5 6)54+*0:0 7*6.42/ 23/ 0/,6+< .4A 6? 23/):6<8+4:*,0J >  NO!  K)</) ,4+ *+,)/40/ .6,4..8 L/G5G; 4 ,/..M; =92 net   /??/,2 *0 )4+<6:*N42*6+ 6? 23/ 9+*7/)0/ ' O*7*+5 6)54+*0:0 24B/ *+ 6)54+*N/< ?6):0 6? :422/) 4+< /+/)58; 4+< )/-.4,/ 23/: A*23 ./00 6)</)/< ?6):0 Fig. 8.4  ! ## #$%&P The relationship of free energyto stability, work capacity, and spontaneous changein systems with higher energy initial states and more stable final states Initial state –higher energy G 9$## # #$%& 35) %# =   >?  –portion of a system’s energy that is able to perform work Fig. 8.5 Final state –more stable Free energy changes (  G) in exergonic (left) and endergonic (right) reactions Free energy change (   G)  > -6)2*6+ 6? 4 0802/:@0 /+/)58 2342 *0 4=./ 26 -/)?6): A6)B L,6+024+2 HM  G  Q   H   >   T   S   R Q   2624. /+/)58 L=*6.658MS T   Q 2/:-/)429)/ L 6 T/.7*+MS  U Q   /+2)6-8 At equilibrium, G = 0 L,/.. *0 </4<VM              Fig. 8.6 Equilibrium and work in an isolated (closed) hydroelectric system Reactions in a system isolated from its surroundings reach equilibrium (  G = 0) and can then do no work Fig. 8.7  ! ## #$%&&  An open hydroelectric system   Open systems can exchange energy (and often matter) with their surroundings –system does not reach equilibriumLiving organisms are open systems Fig. 8.8a Figure 8.7c Equilibrium and work in isolated (closed) and open systems  A cell breaking down glucose occurs in a series of reactions that power the work of the cell Fig. 8.8b ;($03(0$# ,+ )6# ,*. # ($.<5,*<5)(# =@7A? Fig. 8.9a (also review Chap 4)
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks