Gadgil Report

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Madhav Gadgil panel Report
   National Park  No human activity or settlement allowed. Villagers cannot graze their animals, Extremely strict rules about jungle produce collection (Tendu leaves, Honey etc.) Wildlife Sanctuary People are not allowed to live (some exceptions though) but some human activities are allowed, such as grazing, firewood collection. Tourism is permitted. A Sanctuary can be upgraded as a National Park. However a National Park cannot be downgraded as a Sanctuary. Biosphere reserve People are allowed to live, own private land and carry on their traditional activities. (In the outer-zone) Difference between a national park, wildlife Sanctuary, and a biosphere reserve What is Gadgil Panel l       2010: Environment ministry created this panel    Full name: Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel    Chairman=Prof. Madhav Gadgil (he was Ex-Chairman, Centre for Ecological Sciences, in Indian Institute of Science)    To study the ecological and environmental problems of Western Ghats and give recommendations.    Gadgil submitted his report in 2011. Here are his observations and recommendations. Ecologically Sensitive Zones (ESZ)    Environment Protection Act 1986 (EPA)=Union Government can designate an area as “ecologically sensitive zone” and then Government can prohibit/regulate Development in this region.    Using this power, many ecologically sensitive zone have been setup.     E.g. Mahabaleshwar-Panchgani region in Mahrashtra.    But all of them face common problems: 1.   Over bureaucratization =corruption. For example a farmer would need to pay  bribe get clearance to dig well/bore in his own farm. 2.   little or no meaningful participation by the local community.    The Western Ghats has thousands of endemic species of flowering plants, fish, frogs, birds and mammals.    Therefore, entire Western Ghats should be designated as Ecologically sensitive zones.    Gadgil recommends that entire Western Ghat should be divided into 3 zones (actually 4) 1.   Zone 1 Highest protection must be given to them 2.   Zone 2 Intermediate 3.   Zone 3 Moderate control and protection. 4.   PA Protected Areas= existing Wild Life Sanctuaries and National Parks.    final demarcation of the Zones should be done by Western Ghats Ecology Authority (WGEA).    And that too, after taking extensive inputs from local communities and local  bodies, namely, Gram Panchayats, Taluka Panchayats, Zilla Parishads, and  Nagarpalikas Western Ghats Ecology Authority (WGEA)?    Madhav Gadgil Panel recommended for this.    WGEA will have jurisdiction over the Western Ghat districts in six states (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu).    WGEA will be a statutory authority appointed by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Hierarchy Western Ghats Ecology Authority Union  State Western Ghats Ecology Authorities In 6 states District Ecology Committee In districts under Western Ghat Structure 1.   Chairman  –   A retired judge of the Supreme Court, preferably from the Western Ghats region. 2.   Experts from biology, law, science, sociology etc. 3.   Representative from tribal group. 4.   Civil society representatives. Functions 1.   conservation, sustainable development and Eco restoration of the Western Ghats 2.   Environmental Impact Analysis and Clearance process in Western Ghats. 3.   Its recommendations will be ordinarily binding. (just like National Board of Wildlife whose decisions are rarely tampered with and by and large have been approved even by the Supreme Court of India.) 4.   WEGA will decide location of industry, land use planning in Western Ghats. 5.   Prevent activity having negative environmental, social and ecological impact on Western Ghats. 6.   Can issue directions to the state government or agencies to prevent any negative impacts on the Western Ghats. 7.   Authority shall also be the final authority for demarcating the areas under the Ecologically Sensitive Zones #1, 2 and 3. 8.   Power to levy fines and other punitive measures 9.   Right to call for files, records, evidences etc. under Civil Procedure Code. Zonal recommendations  As we saw earlier: Gadgil recommended Western Ghats to be divided into three ecologically sensitive zones. Here they’re:   Ecologically Sensitive Zone (ESZ) Zone #1 Zone #2 Zone #3  Mining Donot give new licenses for mining.    Allow New mining license only IF scarce minerals not available on the plains.    Existing mines should be under strict regulation and social audit. Where mining exists, it should be phased out in 5 years. Existing mines should be under strict regulation and social audit. Polluting Industry (Red/Orange) Donot allow new industries.Exisiting industries must switch to zero pollution by 2016 else close them down. Allow new industries but with strict regulation + social audit.  Non polluting industry (green/blue) Allow but with strict regulation + social audit River  projects/dams  No river projects higher than 3 meters.  Not higher than 15m Any height allowed but with detailed environmental impact assessment. Power plants Donot allow new power plants. Existing= with strict regulation + social audit.New plants=only if they’ve zero pollution.  Transport     No new railway lines and major roads, except where it is highly essential (e.g Goa),    Avoid new highways, Expressways Allowed but only with strict regulation + social audit. Tourism waste management, traffic, water and energy use=strictly regulate. (recall Tiger tourism article). General recommendations Agro 1.   Promote organic agricultural practices
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