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Hydrates IAz

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  NAME : SITI NUR ALIAH BINTI MOHD RUBAI @ MOHD RUBAEE CLASS : IB 107 TITTLE : Hydrates. AIM : To determine the number of moles of water associated with one mole of copper sulfate, in the hydrate CuSO 4 ·  x  H 2 O(s). VARIABLES INDIPENDENT VARIABLE : Mass of copper(II) sulphate,g. DEPENDENT VARIABLE : Number of moles of water associated with one mole of copper(II)sulphate. CONTROLLED VARIABLE : Type of hydrates, lab where the experiment was conducted. RESEARCH QUESTION : How does the diiferent mass of copper(II) sulphate effected the number of moles of water associated when the water of hydration is removed from a known mass of hydrated copper(II) sulphate by heating the compound in a crucible with same type of hydrates but different mass in each experiment? HYPOTHESIS : The higher the mass of copper(II) sulphate,the higher the number of moles of water associated with one moles of copper(II) sulphate. EXPERIMENT BACKGROUND When certain ionic solids crystallize from aqueous solutions, they combine with a definite amount of water, which becomes a part of the crystalline solid. Salts that contain water as part of their crystal structure are called hydrates (or hydrated salts ) and the water in the crystal structure is called the water of hydration . When the water of hydration is removed from the hydrate, the salt that remains is said to be anhydrous . In this experiment, the water of hydration will be removed from a known mass of hydrated copper sulfate by heating the compound in a crucible: heat   CuSO 4 ·  x  H 2 O(s)   CuSO 4 (s) +  x  H 2 O(g) hydrated salt anhydrous salt water By knowing the mass of the anhydrous salt and the mass of water driven off through heating, the formula of the hydrate can be determined. APPARATUS 1.   Crucible 2.   Retort stand 3.   Ring clamp 4.   Clay triangle 5.   Bunsen burner 6.   Crucible tongs 7.   Balance (with thermal pad)  PROCEDURE 1.   Set up your retort stand with a ring clamp and clay triangle. Obtain a crucible. Clean it out with a dry paper towel if necessary. Place the crucible in the clay triangle. Light your Bunsen burner. 2.   Heat the crucible strongly for one minute. Allow it to cool to room temperature . 3.   Weight the crucible (don’t forget to press “tare” first). Record the mass in the appropriate space below. 4.   weight the copper(II) sulphate with 1 g and 2 g respectively. 5.   Place the 1 g of copper(II) sulphate into the crucible. Immediately measure the mass of the crucible containing the hydrate.The value is recorded. 6.   Gently heat the crucible. If the temperature is too high, crystals of hydrated salt may pop or spatter. If this happens, decrease the flame’s intensity. During heating, th e edges of the sample should slowly turn white as water leaves the hydrate. After 2 minutes, increase the intensity of the flame slightly  . Heat the sample with this medium intensity flame until the blue colour completely disappears (≈ 4 min.). 7.   Allow the crucible to cool for 2 minutes. Weigh the crucible containing the anhydrous salt. The value is recorded. 8.   The experiment for 1 g of copper(II) sulphate is repeated for three times and the data is recorded. 9.   Step 2-8 is repeated for different mass of copper(II) sulphate which is 2 g. 10.   Dump the used CuSO4 onto a paper towel. Add a few drops of water. Record your observations. 11.   Clean up (note: use a dry paper towel to clean your crucible). The used CuSO4 can go in the garbage. PRECAUTION 1.   Protective eyewear must be worn during this lab. 2.   As much as possible, handle the crucible with tongs.   Mass, g 1 g 2 g    T   r   i   a    l   1  Mass of empty beaker, g Mass of beaker + hydrated CuSO 4 , g Mass of hydrated CuSO 4 , g    T   r   i   a    l   2  Mass of empty beaker, g Mass of beaker + hydrated CuSO 4 , g Mass of hydrated CuSO 4 , g    T   r   i   a    l   3  Mass of empty beaker, g Mass of beaker + hydrated CuSO 4 , g Mass of hydrated CuSO 4 , g

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Jul 23, 2017

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Jul 23, 2017
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